Table 1—

Demographic and clinical characteristics at enrollment for patients with foot wounds or penetrating injuries who did and did not develop a foot infection*

InfectionNo infectionP valueOR (95% CI)
n15097
Demographics
    Age ≥70 years51.352.60.850.95 (0.57–1.6)
    Percent male52.453.60.850.95 (0.57–1.6)
    Years with diabetes13.9 ± 9.912.8 ± 9.60.381.0 (0.99–1.04)
BMI (kg/m2)30.3 ± 8.428.9 ± 6.30.140.97 (0.94–1.01)
Percent ≥30 kg/m239.342.30.650.89 (0.53–1.5)
History of lower-extremity disease
    Wound53.341.20.061.6 (0.97–2.7)
    Amputation26.514.10.032.2 (1.1–4.4)
    Lower-extremity bypass19.37.20.013.1 (1.3–7.3)
    Charcot arthropathy4.73.10.541.5 (0.39–6.1)
    Recurrent foot wounds41.322.70.0032.4 (1.4–4.3)
Main cause of foot wound
    Neither neuropathy nor peripheral vascular disease7.38.60.790.88 (0.34–2.3)
    Neuropathy27.343.30.0090.49 (0.29–0.84)
    Neuroischemic31.318.60.0262.0 (1.1–3.7)
    Ischemia3.33.10.921.1 (0.25–4.6)
    Trauma24.014.40.071.9 (0.95–3.7)
    Venous stasis6.712.40.120.51 (0.21–1.2)
Peripheral neuropathy present71.377.30.290.73 (0.42–1.3)
Peripheral vascular disease present46.026.80.0022.3 (1.3 to −4.0)
Foot deformity (any) present60.768.00.240.72 (0.42–1.2)
    Hallux valgus26.039.20.030.55 (0.32–0.94)
    Claw or hammer toe33.638.10.460.82 (0.48–1.4)
    Equinus15.314.40.851.1 (0.52–2.2)
Plantar pressure >87.5 N/cm265.166.20.890.96 (0.48–1.88)
Wound location
    Great toe32.023.70.161.5 (0.85–2.7)
    Small toes26.028.90.620.87 (0.49–1.5)
    Metatarsals16.016.50.920.96 (0.48 −1.9)
    Midfoot8.02.10.074.1 (0.90–18)
    Heel8.09.30.730.85 (0.34–2.1)
    Leg10.018.60.060.49 (0.23- 0.02)
Wound depth
    Full thickness51.388.71.0
    Deep to fascia or tendon20.77.2<0.0014.9 (2.1–11.9)
    Joint or bone28.04.1<0.00111.7 (4.0–34.2)
Wound duration (days)203 ± 281147 ± 2520.111.0 (1.0–1.01)
Wound duration >30 days96.778.4<0.00018.0 (2.9–22.0)
  • Data are means ± SD or percent, unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Of 151 foot infections encountered in the study, all but 1 (150) involved a penetrating wound or ulcer.