Table 2—

Diet effects on clinical measures

Vegan group (n = 49, except as noted)
ADA group (n = 50, except as noted)
P value
Baseline22 weeksChangeBaseline22 weeksChangeEffect size
Anthropometric and glycemic variables
    All participants
        A1C (%)8.0 ± 1.17.1 ± 1.0−1.0 ± 1.2*7.9 ± 1.07.4 ± 1.0−0.6 ± 1.1−0.4 (−0.9 to 0.1)0.09
        Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)9.08 ± 2.957.11 ± 1.97−1.97 ± 2.68*8.90 ± 2.266.98 ± 1.911.92 ± 2.48*−0.05 (−1.08 to 0.98)0.92
        Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)163.5 ± 53.2128.0 ± 35.5−35.5 ± 48.3*160.4 ± 40.7125.8 ± 34.4−34.6 ± 44.7*−0.9 (−19.5 to 17.6)0.92
        Weight (kg)97.0 ± 22.991.1 ± 22.4−5.8 ± 4.4*99.3 ± 21.095.0 ± 20.9−4.3 ± 4.4*−1.6 (−3.3 to 0.2)0.08
        BMI (kg/m2)33.9 ± 7.831.8 ± 7.5−2.1 ± 1.5*35.9 ± 7.034.3 ± 7.3−1.5 ± 1.5*−0.6 (−1.2 to 0.1)0.08
        Waist (cm)110.8 ± 18.4105.5 ± 18.1−5.3 ± 4.4*112.3 ± 14.9109.5 ± 14.7−2.8 ± 4.7*−2.5 (−4.3 to −0.7)0.008
        Hip (cm)118.4 ± 17.8114.5 ± 17.8−3.9 ± 3.4*121.3 ± 12.7117.5 ± 12.2−3.8 ± 3.9*−0.1 (−1.5 to 1.4)0.94
        Waist-to-hip ratio (cm)0.94 ± 0.080.92 ± 0.07−0.02 ± 0.030.93 ± 0.070.93 ± 0.070.01 ± 0.04−0.02 (−0.03 to 0.01)0.003
    Participants whose diabetes medications remained unchanged (n = 24 vegan, n = 33 ADA)
        A1C (%)8.07 ± 1.246.84 ± 0.84−1.23 ± 1.387.88 ± 0.937.50 ± 1.03−0.38 ± 1.11−0.85 (−1.51 to −0.19)0.01
        Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)9.85 ± 2.957.12 ± 1.802.73 ± 3.058.90 ± 2.057.34 ± 2.051.57 ± 2.50−1.17 (−2.64 to 0.31)0.12
        Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)177.4 ± 53.2128.2 ± 32.4−49.2 ± 55.0160.3 ± 37.0132.2 ± 36.9−28.2 ± 45.0−21.1 (−47.6 to 5.5)0.12
        Weight (kg)102.4 ± 23.695.9 ± 22.4−6.5 ± 4.3*100.0 ± 19.496.9 ± 19.1−3.1 ± 3.4*−3.4 (−5.5 to −1.4)0.001
        BMI (kg/m2)36.1 ± 7.533.8 ± 7.2−2.3 ± 1.5*36.0 ± 5.834.9 ± 5.9−1.1 ± 1.2*−1.2 (−1.9 to −0.5)0.001
        Waist (cm)115.3 ± 17.9110.3 ± 17.8−5.0 ± 3.7*113.3 ± 13.1111.0 ± 13.5−2.3 ± 4.2−2.7 (−4.8 to −0.5)0.017
        Hip (cm)123.3 ± 17.4119.1 ± 17.3−4.1 ± 2.8*121.7 ± 12.1118.6 ± 11.6−3.1 ± 3.3*−1.0 (−2.7 to 0.7)0.23
        Waist-to-hip ratio (cm)0.94 ± 0.080.93 ± 0.07−0.01 ± 0.030.93 ± 0.070.94 ± 0.080.00 ± 0.04−0.02 (−0.03 to 0.00)0.10
Renal variable
    Urinary albumin/24 h33.0 ± 51.814.6 ± 17.8−18.4 ± 39.055.0 ± 263.143.7 ± 212.0−11.3 ± 53.9−7.1 (−25.9 to 11.7)0.45
    With albumin >30 mg/24 h (m)125−786−2NANA
Blood pressure (n = 48 vegan, n = 50 ADA) (mmHg)§
    Systolic123.8 ± 17.1120.0 ± 18.3−3.8 ± 12.6122.9 ± 15.1119.4 ± 16.5−3.6 ± 13.7−0.2 (−5.5 to 5.1)0.93
    Diastolic77.9 ± 11.172.8 ± 10.2−5.1 ± 8.3*80.0 ± 10.576.7 ± 11.1−3.3 ± 8.8−1.8 (−5.2 to 1.6)0.30
All participants
    Total cholesterol (mg/dl)187.0 ± 37.4159.3 ± 31.9−27.7 ± 28.5*198.9 ± 44.0174.6 ± 36.2−24.2 ± 30.5*−3.5 (−15.3 to 8.3)0.56
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)52.3 ± 19.747.3 ± 16.9−5.0 ± 7.1*49.8 ± 14.546.6 ± 11.8−3.2 ± 11.0−1.8 (−5.5 to 1.9)0.34
    Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)134.7 ± 39.2112.0 ± 31.9−22.7 ± 28.2*149.0 ± 44.1128.0 ± 35.0−21.0 ± 31.5*−1.7 (−13.6 to 10.2)0.78
    Total cholesterol/HDL (mg/dl)4.0 ± 1.63.7 ± 1.2−0.3 ± 0.94.3 ± 1.73.9 ± 1.2−0.4 ± 1.2−0.0 (−0.4 to 0.4)0.92
    LDL cholesterol (n = 49 vegan, n = 48 ADA) (mg/dl)104.4 ± 32.988.0 ± 27.8−16.4 ± 30.6118.5 ± 41.5103.1 ± 33.3−15.4 ± 25.1*−1.0 (−12.3 to 10.3)0.86
    VLDL cholesterol (n = 47 vegan, n = 47 ADA) (mg/dl)26.2 ± 14.423.0 ± 10.2−3.2 ± 10.026.8 ± 13.822.3 ± 10.0−4.4 ± 12.41.2 (−3.4 to 5.8)0.60
    Triglycerides (mg/dl)148.1 ± 112.5119.7 ± 56.0−28.5 ± 80.0158.1 ± 133.1132.9 ± 114.4−25.1 ± 124.7−3.3 (−45.2 to 38.6)0.87
    Log triglycerides2.08 ± 0.282.03 ± 0.21−0.05 ± 0.172.11 ± 0.252.05 ± 0.23−0.07 ± 0.200.02 (−0.05 to 0.09)0.61
Participants with no changes to lipid-controlling medications (n = 39 vegan, n = 41 ADA, except as noted)
    Total cholesterol (mg/dl)190.5 ± 36.8156.9 ± 25.1−33.5 ± 21.5*194.9 ± 40.9175.9 ± 36.2−19.0 ± 28.5*−14.5 (−25.8 to −3.2)0.01
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)54.6 ± 21.048.6 ± 18.4−6.0 ± 6.8*49.2 ± 15.546.4 ± 12.2−2.8 ± 11.6−3.2 (−7.5 to 1.1)0.14
    Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)135.9 ± 38.4108.3 ± 25.6−27.6 ± 21.1*145.7 ± 42.9129.4 ± 35.9−16.3 ± 30.1−11.3 (−22.9 to 0.3)0.05
    Total cholesterol/HDL (mg/dl)3.9 ± 1.53.6 ± 1.2−0.3 ± 0.64.4 ± 1.84.0 ± 1.3−0.3 ± 1.2−0.0 (−0.4 to 0.4)0.98
    LDL cholesterol (n = 39 vegan, n = 39 ADA) (mg/dl)107.3 ± 34.384.6 ± 22.5−22.6 ± 22.0*115.3 ± 40.4104.6 ± 33.7−10.7 ± 23.3−11.9 (−22.2 to −1.7)0.02
    VLDL cholesterol (n = 38 n = vegan, 38 ADA) (mg/dl)26.6 ± 15.423.1 ± 10.9−3.5 ± 10.525.5 ± 13.221.7 ± 9.0−3.8 ± 12.10.4 (−4.8 to 5.6)0.89
    Triglycerides (mg/dl)140.3 ± 89.1118.2 ± 57.3−22.2 ± 58.5157.4 ± 143.0134.6 ± 122.9−22.8 ± 134.30.6 (−45.9 to 47.2)0.98
    Log triglycerides2.06 ± 0.282.02 ± 0.22−0.04 ± 0.162.11 ± 0.252.05 ± 0.24−0.06 ± 0.210.02 (−0.1 to 0.1)0.68
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. Listed P values are for comparisons of between-group (vegan vs. ADA) changes (baseline to 22 weeks).

  • *

    * P < 0.0001,

  • P < 0.001,

  • P < 0.01, and

  • P < 0.05 for within-group changes.

  • §

    § Blood pressure was not determined on one vegan group participant due to equipment failure.

  • When triglycerides exceeded 400 mg/dl, LDL was calculated via direct-LDL; two ADA-group individuals were excluded due to lack of sufficient plasma samples. SI conversion: to convert HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol to mmol/l, multiply by 0.0259; for tryiglycerides, multiply by 0.0113.