Table 3

Prevalence 10 years after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and HRs for psychiatric disorders by diabetes diagnosis cohort

Prevalence, % (95% CI)HR (95% CI)**
1973–19861987–19961997–20091973–19861987–19961997–2009
Any psychiatric disorder3.8 (3.0–4.8)8.8 (7.8–9.8)16.7 (15.4–18.1)2.7 (2.2–3.3)2.5 (2.3–2.8)1.9 (1.8–2.0)
Suicide attempt0.5 (0.2–0.9)1.1 (0.8–1.6)1.4 (1.0–1.9)2.1 (1.4–3.2)1.7 (1.3–2.2)1.6 (1.3–2.1)
Psychotic disorders0.1 (0.0–0.1)0.1 (0.0–0.4)0.1 (0.0–0.3)1.3 (0.3–5.1)0.7 (0.2–2.9)0.9 (0.3–2.7)
Mood disorders0.2 (0.0–0.5)0.7 (0.5–1.1)3.4 (2.7–4.3)2.2 (1.0–5.2)2.0 (1.6–2.6)2.0 (1.7–2.4)
Anxiety, dissociative, stress-related, and somatoform disorders0.6 (0.3–1.0)0.6 (0.4–0.9)1.2 (0.9–1.7)2.0 (0.9–4.4)1.6 (1.2–2.2)1.6 (1.4–1.9)
Eating disorders0.3 (0.1–0.7)0.6 (0.4–0.9)1.5 (1.1–2.1)2.3 (1.1–4.7)2.2 (1.6–3.1)2.1 (1.7–2.8)
Substance misuse0.6 (0.4–1.1)3.3 (2.7–4.0)4.5 (3.8–5.5)2.3 (1.6–3.3)3.0 (2.5–3.5)2.4 (2.1–2.8)
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders0.0 (0.0–0.0)1.0 (0.7–1.4)3.2 (2.7–3.9)1.0 (0.1–6.7)2.3 (1.7–3.1)1.4 (1.2–1.6)
Other behavioral disorders1.3 (0.8–1.9)1.9 (1.5–2.5)4.5 (3.9–5.3)3.5 (2.3–5.2)2.5 (2.0–3.1)2.0 (1.8–2.3)
Autism spectrum disorders*0.4 (0.2–0.7)1.7 (1.3–2.1)1.7 (1.1–2.6)1.7 (1.4–2.1)
Intellectual disability0.3 (0.1–0.6)0.6 (0.4–1.0)1.2 (1.0–1.6)2.2 (1.2–4.2)2.0 (1.4–2.9)1.7 (1.4–2.1)
  • *In ICD-8, autism spectrum disorders were classified as a schizophrenia in psychotic disorders.

  • **Multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for psychiatric disorders in children with type 1 diabetes when comparing with matched unexposed individuals. Multivariate Cox regression adjusted for socioeconomic factors (maternal/paternal age at childbirth, maternal/paternal psychiatric history, maternal/paternal country of birth, level of education of higher educated parent), perinatal variables (gestational age, birth weight, being born small for gestational age, being born large for gestational age, Apgar score), and history of psychiatric disorders prior to the recruitment.