Table 1—

Clinical and laboratory characteristics of the 27,805 patients with type 1 diabetes from 262 centers included in the nephropathy evaluation

NormalNephropathy
P*
MicroalbuminuriaMacroalbuminuria/ ESRD
n26,64491952/229
Sex, male (%)52.652.158.0NS
Age at last visit (years)21.1 ± 0.0928.7 ± 0.6437.2 ± 1.2<0.0001
Diabetes duration (years)8.3 ± 0.05412.6 ± 0.3920.1 ± 0.86<0.0001
Age at onset (years)12.9 ± 0.0716.1 ± 0.4517.2 ± 0.78<0.0001
Insulin dose (IE · kg−1 · day−1)0.80 ± 0.0020.82 ± 0.010.71 ± 0.370.025
Insulin pump treatment (%)20.020.621.8NS
A1C (%)7.97 ± 0.018.24 ± 0.078.3 ± 0.180.0019
Smoking (cigarettes/day)2.3 ± 0.044.2 ± 0.303.9 ± 1.0<0.0001
Blood pressure
    Systolic (mmHg)119.5 ± 0.09123.0 ± 0.51126.6 ± 2.3<0.0001
    Diastolic (mmHg)70.2 ± 0.0672.2 ± 0.374.2 ± 1.3<0.0001
Most recent BMI-SDS0.65 ± 0.060.75 ± 0.040.71 ± 0.120.024
Dyslipidemia
    Total cholesterol (mg/dl)183.4 ± 0.29197.1 ± 1.7203.3 ± 5.7<0.0001
    LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)99.9 ± 0.28106.3 ± 1.5111.4 ± 7.1<0.0001
    Triglycerides (mg/dl)119.4 ± 0.62139.8 ± 3.6144.3 ± 11.2<0.0001
Antihypertensive medications
    ACE inhibitors (%)4.9 ± 0.1314.7 ± 1.134.6 ± 5.4<0.0001
    Ca antagonists (%)1.0 ± 0.064.7 ± 0.821.8 ± 4.7<0.0001
    Diuretics (%)1.9 ± 0.017.0 ± 0.830.7 ± 5.2<0.0001
    β-blockers (%)2.6 ± 0.017.6 ± 0.925.6 ± 4.9<0.0001
Angiotensin receptor blockers (Sartane) (%)0.8 ± 0.053.1 ± 0.611.6 ± 3.6<0.0001
  • Data are means ± SE.

  • *

    * Statistics normal versus nephropathy, Kruskal-Wallis test.

  • According to actual normative data of the German Working Group of Obesity.

  • Alone or in combination. NS, not significant.