Table 1—

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic end points

TreatmentNOEXEX30
EX120
EX240
Mean (95% CI)Mean (95% CI)Mean ratio (95% CI)PMean (95% CI)Mean ratio (95% CI)PMean (95% CI)Mean ratio (95% CI)P
n22212122
Insulin
    AUCins(30–150 min)*17,221 (12,418–23,881)15,969 (11,458–22,257)0.93 (0.84–1.02)NS
    AUCins(120–240 min)*11,868 (8,736–16,124)10,092 (7,384–13,793)0.85 (0.77–0.94)0.002
    AUCins(240–360 min)5,094 (3,745–6,930)5,176 (3,805–7,040)1.02 (0.86–1.19)NS
    AUCins(0–360 min)34,064 (24,904–46,593)29,668 (21,681–40,598)0.87 (0.80–0.95)0.00230,193 (22,065–41,316)0.89 (0.81–0.97)0.00835,821 (26,188–48,997)1.05 (0.96–1.15)NS
    AUCins(0–600 min)37,624 (27,972–50,608)32,665 (24,275–43,956)0.87 (0.80–0.94)0.00133,357 (24,789–44,886)0.89 (0.82–0.96)0.00638,869 (28,897–52,282)1.03 (0.95–1.12)NS
    Cmax213 (156–292)218 (159–299)1.02 (0.88–1.19)NS192 (140–263)0.90 (0.78–1.04)NS209 (153–287)0.98 (0.85–1.14)NS
    tmax69 (52–92)47 (35–63)0.68 (0.47–0.98)0.04157 (42–76)0.82 (0.57–1.19)NS61 (46–82)0.89 (0.62–1.28)NS
GIR
    AUCGIR(30–150 min)*436 (360–529)688 (554–854)1.58 (1.34–1.86)0.000
    AUCGIR(120–240 min)*480 (402–573)696 (569–852)1.45 (1.24–1.70)0.000
    AUCGIR(240–360 min)240 (162–355)410 (277–606)1.71 (1.09–2.67)0.019
    AUCGIR(0–360 min)1,093 (913–1,309)1,207 (1,006–1,448)1.10 (0.95–1.28)NS1,290 (1,075–1,549)1.18 (1.02–1.37)0.0291,288 (1,075–1,542)1.18 (1.02–1.36)0.028
    AUCGIR(0–600 min)1,194 (996–1,432)1,300 (1,082–1,563)1.09 (0.94–1.26)NS1,389 (1,156–1,670)1.16 (1.00–1.35)0.0491,356 (1,131–1,626)1.14 (0.98–1.32)NS
    GIRmax5.6 (4.7–6.7)9.0 (7.5–10.8)1.61 (1.32–1.95)0.0009.9 (8.2–11.8)1.76 (1.45–2.14)0.0007.7 (6.5–9.2)1.38 (1.14–1.68)0.001
    tGIRmax111 (94–131)59 (50–70)0.53 (0.42–0.67)0.000143 (120–170)1.29 (1.02–1.63)0.034217 (183–257)1.96 (1.55–2.46)0.000
  • All means are geometric means [exp(Least Squares Means)] based on ANOVA model. All tests are against no exercise. NOEX, no exercise; EX30, exercise starting 30 min after dosing; EX120, exercise starting 120 min after dosing; EX240, exercise starting 240 min after dosing; NS, nonsignificant. Units: all AUCins, pmol · min−1 · l−1; Cmax, pmol/l; tmax, min; all AUCGIR, mg/kg; GIRmax, mg · kg−1 · min−1; tGIRmax, min.

  • *

    * NOEX is a combination of NOEX and EX240 treatments (i.e., N = 44).