Table 1—

Values of all variables at baseline and after 16 weeks of intervention

VariableExercise group
Control group
P1P2P3
BaselineAfterP1BaselineAfter
n (male/female subjects)28 (12/16)26 (11/15)
Age (years)56.83 ± 6.762.32 ± 9.28
Duration of diabetes (years)6.50 ± 4.647.78 ± 4.90
SULF33
MET109
SULF + MET1514
Patients on anti-hypertensive medication (%)19 (67.9%)16 (61.5%)
BMI (kg/m2)31.79 ± 3.7931.12 ± 3.460.43029.92 ± 3.4130.17 ± 3.460.6700.5700.620
Weight (kg)81.91 ± 14.4880.64 ± 16.470.57077.55 ± 15.1078.16 ± 14.170.7200.2900.680
Waist-to-hip ratio0.970 ± 0.0700.957 ± 0.0480.0750.940 ± 0.1000.943 ± 0.1300.3900.1700.720
Cholesterol (mg/dl)225.22 ± 38.28206.69 ± 40.850.016234.95 ± 39.04242.37 ± 42.510.5800.0120.048
HDL (mg/dl)50.26 ± 15.2553.48 ± 15.92<0.00154.60 ± 11.3152.16 ± 12.50.3400.0070.840
LDL (mg/dl)148.30 ± 32.90129.45 ± 30.860.016150.74 ± 36.68151.65 ± 2.400.9400.0110.036
Triglycerides (mg/dl)145.57 ± 54.33130.44 ± 51.940.033145.37 ± 63.7165.32 ± 85.820.0750.0090.014
A1C (%)7.70 ± 1.116.99 ± 1.08<0.0017.65 ± 1.017.96 ± 0.970.013<0.0010.005
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)167.65 ± 33.31145.55 ± 32.560.002175.94 ± 26.83184.22 ± 31.000.029<0.0010.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)133.95 ± 19.75126.05 ± 20.030.007141.11 ± 16.05141.39 ± 17.130.9800.0100.021
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)81.15 ± 9.9979.20 ± 9.830.05978.89 ± 9.1680.83 ± 9.430.3400.0840.460
Span class = hsCRP (mg/dl)0.52 ± 0.150.33 ± 0.230.0280.39 ± 0.170.38 ± 0.110.7900.0450.130
Insulin (mU/l)11.00 ± 0.419.56 ± 5.150.0438.68 ± 0.539.94 ± 5.630.4800.0490.870
HOMA-IR4.44 ± 2.493.40 ± 2.260.0274.27 ± 2.385.01 ± 2.700.3100.0350.026
Resistin (ng/ml)17.4 ± 6.5911.88 ± 4.100.03115.65 ± 2.9416.73 ± 6.040.4200.0330.038
IL-6 (pg/ml)4.51 ± 0.762.98 ± 0.600.0424.64 ± 0.554.62 ± 1.050.8600.0350.027
IL-18 (pg/ml)375.15 ± 112.7 4223.7 ± 176.760.032292.98 ± 153.18342.84 ± 151.260.0920.0180.013
Vo2max (mg · kg−1 · min−1)22.57 ± 4.3126.26 ± 5.08<0.00123.80 ± 5.7922.71 ± 5.270.0900.0010.031
Duration test (min)9.00 ± 1.489.77 ± 1.65<0.0019.45 ± 1.689.06 ± 1.530.020<0.0010.360
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. MET, number of patients receiving metformin; P1, P values of levels of variables between baseline versus the end of the study within groups; P2, P values of changes of variables in the exercise versus control group; P3, P values of levels of variables in the exercise versus control group at the end of the study; SULF, number of patients receiving sulfonylurea agent; SULF + MET, number of patients receiving sulfonylurea agent and metformin.