Table 4

HRs (95% CI) for psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence when comparing siblings of patients with type 1 diabetes and siblings of healthy individuals

Siblings of probands: siblings of patients with type 1 diabetes 
(n = 18,847)Unexposed siblings: siblings of healthy individuals 
(n = 1,077,951)Univariate*Multivariate**
Any psychiatric disorder1,059 (5.6)56,366 (5.2)1.1 (1.0–1.2)1.1 (1.0–1.1)
Suicide attempt107 (0.6)5,152 (0.5)1.2 (1.0–1.5)1.2 (1.0–1.4)
Psychotic disorders7 (0.0)520 (0.1)0.8 (0.4–1.7)0.8 (0.4–1.7)
Mood disorders117 (0.6)6,774 (0.6)1.0 (0.8–1.2)1.0 (0.8–1.2)
Anxiety, dissociative, stress-related, and somatoform disorders122 (0.7)7,348 (0.7)1.0 (0.8–1.2)0.9 (0.8–1.1)
Eating disorders85 (0.5)4,592 (0.4)1.1 (0.9–1.4)1.1 (0.9–1.4)
Substance misuse193 (1.0)9,713 (0.9)1.2 (1.0–1.4)1.2 (1.0–1.3)
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders151 (0.8)8,523 (0.8)1.1 (1.0–1.3)1.1 (0.9–1.2)
Other behavioral disorders265 (1.4)13,801 (1.3)1.1 (1.0–1.3)1.1 (1.0–1.2)
Autism spectrum disorders82 (0.4)4,845 (0.5)1.0 (0.8–1.2)1.0 (0.8–1.2)
Intellectual disability123 (0.7)6,164 (0.6)1.2 (1.0–1.4)1.2 (1.0–1.4)
  • Data are n (%) with outcome or HR (95% CI).

  • *Conditional analysis adjusted to age at the time of recruitment, sex, year, and county of birth by matching.

  • **Multivariate Cox regression additionally adjusted for socioeconomic factors (maternal/paternal age at childbirth, maternal/paternal psychiatric history, maternal/paternal country of birth, level of education of higher educated parent) and perinatal variables (gestational age, birth weight, being born small for gestational age, being born large for gestational age, Apgar score). CIs for all outcomes except any psychiatric disorder include 1.0.