Table 2—

Risk factors for recurrence of GDM

Factors at index pregnancy
Factors at subsequent pregnancy
RaceMaternal ageBMI/ weightWeight gainInsulin useParityDiagnosis <24 weeksGTT levelsBirth weight/ macrosomiaBreast-feedingMonths between pregnanciesWeight gain between pregnanciesBMI/weight subsequent pregnancyRef.
NHW
    ?NoNo??No???????4
    ?NoYes*Yes????Yes*NoNoYesYes5
    ?Yes*No?NoYes*?NoNo??YesYes6
    ?YesYes?YesNoYesYesYes???Yes7
    ?????????????8
NHW and minority
    NoNoYesNo?NoNoYesYes???Yes9
    YesYes*Yes?Yes*No?Yes???YesYes10
    ?Yes???No??Yes????11
Predominantly minority, including Latinas
    NoNoNo?YesNo?YesYes??NoYes12
    NoNoNo?YesNoNoYesYes????13
    ?NoYes?YesYesYes?No?Yes*Yes*No14
    ?YesNo??Yes?YesNo?YesYesYes15
    ?????????????16
  • ”?” indicates that the factor was not examined in that particular study. “Yes” indicates that the factor was associated with recurrence of GDM. “No” indicates that the factor was not associated with recurrence of GDM.

  • * Indicates significance in multivariate models if these were constructed. Lack of asterisks for a particular study indicates that multivariate analysis was not done. GTT, glucose tolerance test.