Table 1—

Characteristics of participants by baseline diabetes status in the Health ABC Study

Without diabetesWith diabetesP value*
n1,535305
Sociodemographic
    Age (years)73.4 ± 2.873.5 ± 2.70.772
    Men (%)47.759.1<0.001
    Blacks (%)32.751.9<0.001
    Education <12 years (%)19.830.9<0.001
Anthropometric (body composition)
    Height (cm)166.6 ± 9.2167.0 ± 9.30.312
    Weight (kg)75.2 ± 14.481.0 ± 14.1<0.001
    BMI (kg/m2)27.1 ± 4.429.0 ± 4.4<0.001
    Total body fat (%)33.6 ± 7.634.3 ± 7.40.050
    Total fat mass (kg)25.5 ± 8.027.9 ± 8.2<0.001
    Total lean mass (kg)47.5 ± 10.150.7 ± 9.9<0.001
Chronic diseases (%)
    Coronary heart disease15.223.7<0.001
    Congestive heart failure1.52.90.094
    Stroke1.81.90.860
    PAD3.05.80.014
    Knee osteoarthritis8.46.80.347
    Depression11.69.70.337
    Cancer21.016.60.079
    Impaired vision16.725.7<0.001
    Renal insufficiency6.011.50.001
    Subclinical PAD9.519.1<0.001
Behavioral factors
    Current smoking (%)8.56.50.243
    Alcohol drinking (%)55.438.3<0.001
    Physical activity (kcal/week)548 (119–1,446)403 (57–1,235)0.024
Biochemical
    Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.2 ± 0.58.4 ± 2.9<0.001
    A1C (%)6.0 ± 0.57.9 ± 1.6<0.001
    IL-6 (pg/ml)1.63 (1.12–2.44)2.16 (1.47–3.08)<0.001
    TNF-α (pg/ml)3.03 (2.35–3.86)3.41 (2.57–4.37)<0.001
  • Data are means ± SD, proportions, or median (interquartile range).

  • *

    * P values are from age/sex/race-adjusted logistic regression or linear models comparing participants with and without diabetes.

  • Subclinical peripheral artery disease (PAD) was defined as ankle-arm index <0.9.

  • Wilcoxon rank-sum test for comparison of medians.