Table 2—

Three-year changes in skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality by baseline diabetes status in the Health ABC Study

BaselineWithout diabetes 36 monthsChangeBaselineWith diabetes 36 monthsChangeP value*
n1,535305
Knee extensor
    Maximal torque (Nm)109.1 ± 0.796.8 ± 0.7−12.4 ± 0.5111.3 ± 1.594.8 ± 1.5−16.5 ± 1.20.001
    Leg lean mass (kg)7.52 ± 0.037.29 ± 0.03−0.23 ± 0.017.96 ± 0.077.66 ± 0.07−0.29 ± 0.030.035
    Specific torque (Nm/kg)14.4 ± 0.113.2 ± 0.1−1.2 ± 0.114.0 ± 0.212.4 ± 0.2−1.6 ± 0.20.034
Hand grip
    Maximal force (kg)32.6 ± 0.231.3 ± 0.2−1.3 ± 0.132.1 ± 0.430.8 ± 0.4−1.3 ± 0.30.964
    Arm lean mass (kg)2.75 ± 0.012.70 ± 0.01−0.06 ± 0.012.92 ± 0.032.83 ± 0.03−0.08 ± 0.010.025
    Specific force (kg/kg)12.0 ± 0.111.8 ± 0.1−0.2 ± 0.111.2 ± 0.111.0 ± 0.1−0.2 ± 0.10.757
  • Data are adjusted means ± SE from linear models controlling for age, sex, race, and clinic site.

  • *

    * P values for comparison of 3-year changes between two groups.

  • P < 0.01 versus those without diabetes at the same time period.

  • P < 0.001 between baseline and 36 months within the same group.