Table 3—

Adjusted 3-year changes in knee extensor strength and muscle quality by baseline diabetes status in the Health ABC Study

Without diabetesWith diabetesP value
n1,535305
Muscle strength (maximal torque, Nm)
    Model 1−12.4 ± 0.5−16.5 ± 1.20.001
    Model 2−12.5 ± 0.5−16.2 ± 1.10.001
    Model 3−12.5 ± 0.5−15.7 ± 1.10.008
    Model 4−12.7 ± 0.5−15.6 ± 1.20.026
Muscle quality (specific torque, Nm/kg)
    Model 1−1.22 ± 0.07−1.57 ± 0.150.034
    Model 2−1.20 ± 0.06−1.69 ± 0.140.001
    Model 3−1.21 ± 0.06−1.64 ± 0.140.006
    Model 4−1.24 ± 0.06−1.64 ± 0.150.018
  • Data are adjusted means ± SE. Model 1: adjusted for sex, race, age, and clinic site. Model 2: additionally adjusted for BMI, baseline strength or quality, changes in leg lean mass, and physical activity. Model 3: additionally adjusted for coronary heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, peripheral artery disease, knee osteoarthritis, cancer, depression, impaired vision, renal insufficiency, and subclinical peripheral artery disease (ankle arm index <0.9). Model 4: additionally adjusted for cytokines (log-transformed IL-6 and TNF-α).