Table 2—

Changes for HOMA-IR, fasting plasma insulin, and glucose concentrations for vitamin K and non–vitamin K supplementation

Outcomes and changeModelMen
Women
ControlVitamin KP valueControlVitamin KP value
n6280109104
HOMA-IR
    6 monthsCrude0.02 (−0.22 to 0.25)0.06 (−0.15 to 0.27)0.77−0.03 (−0.19 to 0.14)0.04 (−0.13 to 0.20)0.61
    6 monthsAdjusted0.03 (−0.21 to 0.27)0.05 (−0.16 to 0.26)0.91−0.01 (−0.17 to 0.15)0.02 (−0.14 to 0.19)0.76
    36 monthsCrude0.35 (0.03 to 0.68)−0.09 (−0.37 to 0.20)0.050.16 (−0.04 to 0.37)0.31 (0.10 to 0.52)0.32
    36 monthsAdjusted0.39 (0.09 to 0.69)−0.12 (−0.38 to 0.15)0.010.19 (0.00 to 0.38)0.28 (0.09 to 0.48)0.49
Plasma insulin (μU/ml)
    6 monthsCrude−0.34 (−1.27 to 0.59)−0.2 (−1.02 to 0.63)0.82−0.68 (−1.34 to −0.03)−0.19 (−0.86 to 0.48)0.30
    6 monthsAdjusted−0.29 (−1.22 to 0.65)−0.23 (−1.06 to 0.59)0.93−0.60 (−1.24 to 0.04)−0.28 (−0.93 to 0.38)0.49
    36 monthsCrude1.08 (−0.15 to 2.30)−0.43 (−1.51 to 0.64)0.070.23 (−0.50 to 0.97)1.08 (0.33 to 1.83)0.12
    36 monthsAdjusted1.16 (0.02 to 2.30)−0.49 (−1.50 to 0.51)0.040.37 (−0.32 to 1.06)0.94 (0.23 to 1.64)0.26
Plasma glucose (mg/dl)
    6 monthsCrude3.41 (1.79 to 5.04)3.52 (2.09 to 4.96)0.922.28 (0.80 to 3.75)2.31 (0.80 to 3.82)0.97
    6 monthsAdjusted3.70 (2.08 to 5.32)3.30 (1.87 to 4.72)0.722.43 (0.98 to 3.88)2.16 (0.67 to 3.64)0.80
    36 monthsCrude2.15 (0.20 to 4.10)0.98 (−0.75 to 2.72)0.381.51 (−0.04 to 3.05)1.33 (−0.24 to 2.91)0.88
    36 monthsAdjusted2.57 (0.70 to 4.44)0.65 (−1.01 to 2.31)0.141.68 (0.17 to 3.18)1.16 (−0.38 to 2.69)0.64
  • Data are least-squares means (95% CI). Least-squares means are the mean changes in the outcomes when individual values covariates are held constant. Crude analysis was adjusted for the baseline outcome measure (HOMA-IR, plasma insulin, or glucose). Adjusted analysis controlled for baseline outcome measures, baseline BMI, and either 6- or 36-month weight change.