Table 1—

Baseline clinical and biochemical characteristics of the study cohort of type 2 diabetic patients

Nonischemic strokeIschemic strokeP
n6,158287
Age (years)56 (46–67)68 (60–73)<0.0001*
Male sex45.348.40.3012
BMI (kg/m2)24.7 (22.4–27.3)24.7 (22.4–26.9)0.8339*
Smoking0.0003
    Former smokers13.919.5
    Current smokers18.924.7
Duration of diabetes (years)5 (1–10)9 (3–15)<0.0001*
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)133 (120–147)144 (130–160)<0.0001*
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)76 (69–83)77 (70–85)0.0364*
Hypertension57.678.4<0.0001
A1C (%)7.3 (6.4–8.5)7.9 (6.8–9.2)<0.0001*
A1C ≥6.2%81.090.9<0.0001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.10 (2.50–3.80)3.30 (2.70–4.00)0.0002*
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.26 (1.07–1.50)1.21 (1.03–1.46)0.0096*
Triglyceride (mmol/l)1.33 (0.94–1.95)1.40 (0.98–2.05)0.1051*
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.10 (4.5–5.83)5.30 (4.70–5.09)0.0044*
ACR (mg/mmol)1.79 (0.73–9.27)9.03 (1.83–62.49)<0.0001*
Microalbuminuria25.131.7<0.0001
Macroalbuminuria15.334.8
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)106.1 (85.6–127.7)89.3 (67.1–109.1)<0.0001*
Retinopathy25.342.5<0.0001
Sensory neuropathy25.240.4<0.0001
Peripheral arterial disease5.312.2<0.0001
History of CHD5.412.9<0.0001
History of cancer2.20.70.0773
Drug use at baseline
    Lipid-lowering drugs13.413.20.958
    ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers20.623.70.2050
    Other antihypertensive drugs34.246.0<0.0001
    Oral antidiabetic drugs62.459.60.3317
    Insulin17.325.40.0004
    Aspirin§8.312.30.0345*
    Other aspirin-containing drugs§0.10.01.0
    Antiplatelet drugs§8.513.10.0166*
    Anti-arrhythmic drugs§0.30.40.5448
    Glucocorticoid§1.60.00.051
    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs§2.41.30.2751*
  • Data are medians (25th to 75th) or %, unless otherwise indicated. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or using ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, or other antihypertensive drugs. Microalbuminuria was defined as ACR ≥2.5 and <25 mg/mmol in men and ≥3.5 and <25 mg/mmol in women; macroalbuminuria was defined as ACR ≥25 mg/mmol in both sexes.

  • *

    * Derived from the χ2 test.

  • Derived from Fisher's exact test.

  • Derived from the Wilcoxon two-sample test.

  • §

    § Only in 5,362 patients who were enrolled in the cohort after 1 December 1996.