Table 2—

Hazard ratios for the risk of ischemic stroke in relation to A1C and albuminuria

ExposureNumber at riskHazard ratio95% CIP
Basic models
    Basic model 1*
        A1C (per %)6,4451.101.03–1.170.0039
        Albuminuria
            Microalbuminuria vs. normoalbuminuria1,6351.431.06–1.940.0182
            Macroalbuminuria vs. normoalbuminuria1,0422.131.54–2.95<0.0001
        Hypertension: yes vs. no3,7761.501.10–2.060.0113
        Glomerular filtration rate (per 10 ml/min per 1.73 m2)6,4450.970.93–1.020.2341
    Basic model 2*
        A1C ≥6.2 vs. <6.2%5,5551.731.15–2.600.0084
        Micro/macroalbuminuria vs. normoalbuminuria2,6771.741.33–2.27<0.0001
        Hypertension: yes vs. no3,7761.531.12–2.080.0075
        Glomerular filtration rate, per 10 ml/min per 1.73 m26,4450.960.92–1.000.0627
    Basic model 3 (four individual models)
        Micro/macroalbuminuria vs. normoalbuminuria in A1C <6.2%1,1941.250.56–2.760.5846
        Micro/macroalbuminuria vs. normoalbuminuria in A1C 6.2–6.9%1,4222.161.23–3.800.0078
        Micro/macroalbuminuria vs. normoalbuminuria in A1C 7.0–10.0%3,1291.811.28–2.560.0009
        Micro/macroalbuminuria vs. normoalbuminuria in A1C ≥10.0%7002.221.05–4.700.0376
Interaction models
    Interaction model 1
        A1C ≥6.2% and normoalbuminuria vs. others2,9741.660.93–2.980.0889
        A1C <6.2% and micro/macroalbuminuria vs. others4002.181.01–4.700.0474
        A1C ≥6.2% and micro/macroalbuminuria vs. others2,2775.112.91–8.70<0.0001
    Interaction model 2*
        A1C ≥6.2% and normoalbuminuria vs. others2,9741.350.75–2.440.3130
        A1C <6.2% and micro/macroalbuminuria vs. others4001.170.54–2.560.6888
        A1C ≥6.2% and micro/macroalbuminuria vs. others2,2772.461.38–4.390.0024
    Interaction model 3§
        A1C ≥6.2% and normoalbuminuria vs. others2,9741.300.72–2.350.3807
        A1C <6.2% and micro/macroalbuminuria vs. others4001.100.50–2.400.8090
        A1C ≥6.2% and micro/macroalbuminuria vs. others2,2772.321.30–4.160.0046
  • Microalbuminuria was defined as ACR ≥2.5 and <25 mg/mmol in men and ≥3.5 and <25 mg/mmol in women; macroalbuminuria was defined as ACR ≥25 mg/mmol in both sexes.

  • *

    * Adjusted for traditional risk factors including age, sex, smoking status (current and former), hypertension (defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or on ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers or other antihypertensive drugs), BMI, HDL cholesterol, duration of diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and use of drugs at baseline (lipid-lowering drugs, oral anti-diabetic drugs, and insulin).

  • Not adjusted for other covariates.

  • Adjusted for age, sex, current smoking status, and hypertension.

  • §

    § Adjusted for covariates listed in *, but spline was used for all the continuous covariates.