Table 1—

Depression symptoms and antidepressant use at baseline and during the DPP

CharacteristicAt baseline
During DPP
nBDI ≥11 [n(%)]Antidepressant medicine use [n(%)]Total person-yearsBDI ≥11 [person-years (% of total person-years)]Intermittent use [person-years (% of total person-years)]Continuous use [person-years (% of total person-years)]
Total participants3,187328 (10.3)181 (5.7)8,637.11,302.1 (15.1)622.0 (7.2)272.4 (3.2)
Age (years)*
    25–44983115 (11.7)47 (4.8)2,628.2460.3 (17.5)223.4 (8.5)53.7 (2.0)
    45–591,567160 (10.2)102 (6.5)4,267.2639.6 (15.0)318.6 (7.5)151.7 (3.6)
    ≥6063753 (8.3)32 (5.0)1,741.7202.1 (11.6)80.0 (4.6)66.9 (3.8)
Sex
    Female2,158255 (11.8)160 (7.4)5,854.11,011.2 (17.3)520.0 (8.9)240.4 (4.1)
    Male1,02973 (7.1)21 (2.0)2,783.0290.9 (10.5)102.0 (3.7)32.0 (1.1)
Race/ethnicity
    White1,746132 (7.6)144 (8.2)4,736.0578.6 (12.2)436.2 (9.2)238.0 (5.0)
    African American63681 (12.7)11 (1.7)1,690.0299.0 (17.7)66.8 (4.0)9.2 (0.5)
    Hispanic49867 (13.5)18 (3.6)1,343.8244.3 (18.2)75.4 (5.6)21.0 (1.6)
    American Indian16533 (20.0)6 (3.6)460.4125.4 (27.2)32.4 (7.0)1.3 (0.3)
    Asian14215 (10.6)2 (1.4)406.854.8 (13.5)11.1 (2.7)3.0 (0.7)
Education in years**
    ≤12822122 (14.8)33 (4.0)2,249.2453.2 (20.1)137.8 (6.1)54.5 (2.4)
    13–161,534152 (9.9)91 (5.9)4,176.7615.2 (14.7)302.7 (7.2)129.8 (3.1)
    ≥1783154 (6.5)57 (6.9)2,211.2233.7 (10.6)181.5 (8.2)88.1 (4.0)
BDI ≥11 (means ± SD)Antidepressant use (means ± SD)BDI ≥11 (least-square means ± SE)Antidepressant use (least-square means ± SE)
NoYesNoYesNoYesNever exposedIntermittent useContinuous use
Weight (kg)94.1 ± 20.195.6 ± 21.394.0 ± 20.297.8 ± 20.9*93.2 ± 0.493.8 ± 0.4*93.3 ± 0.493.1 ± 0.494.7 ± 0.6*
BMI (kg/m2)33.8 ± 6.635.5 ± 7.033.9 ± 6.735.8 ± 7.133.6 ± 0.133.9 ± 0.1*33.6 ± 0.133.6 ± 0.134.2 ± 0.2
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)106.5 ± 8.2106.6 ± 8.9106.6 ± 8.3105.3 ± 8.2*105.7 ± 0.1106.2 ± 0.3105.8 ± 0.1105.8 ± 0.4105.6 ± 0.6
Fasting insulin (μU/ml)26.6 ± 15.228.5 ± 14.9*26.8 ± 15.326.5 ± 13.925.0 ± 0.227.4 ± 0.525.3 ± 0.226.7 ± 0.725.1 ± 0.9
Leisure activity (MET-hours)16.6 ± 26.114.5 ± 25.016.5 ± 26.214.4 ± 22.418.6 ± 0.315.8 ± 0.718.4 ± 0.315.7 ± 1.015.0 ± 1.4*
  • Significance levels of differences in depression symptoms or antidepressant use are noted as follows:

  • *

    * P < 0.05;

  • P < 0.0001;

  • P < 0.001.

  • Thus † noted for sex in column “BDI ≥11” (at baseline) indicates that the proportion of those with elevated baseline BDI scores differed by sex with P < 0.001. During DPP, variables age, sex, race/ethnicity, and education remain the same. Variables weight, BMI, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and leisure activity are measured repeatedly during the study, and repeated-model–based means are reported.