Table 2—

HRs showing the association between A1C levels and mortality in a New Zealand population-based sample by sex, ethnicity, and smoking status

DeathsnA1C levels
<4.0%
4.0 to <5.0%
5.0 to <6.0%
6.0 to <7.0%
≥7.0%
Prior diabetes diagnosis
nHR (95% CI)nHR (95% CI)nHR (95% CI)nHR (95% CI)nHR (95% CI)nHR (95% CI)
Total*81532.90 (0.91–9.19)821.04491.33 (1.05–1.70)1292.12 (1.58–2.85)872.36 (1.72–3.25)655.19 (3.67–7.35)
Gender
    Males47134.53 (1.41–14.63)491.02611.29 (0.94–1.77)661.87 (1.26–2.78)552.49 (1.65–3.75)375.29 (3.35–8.36)
    Females3440§331.01881.35 (0.92–1.98)632.41 (1.53–3.78)322.11 (1.26–3.53)284.98 (2.91–8.52)
Ethnicity
    European and other55120.71 (2.55–167.97)121.0341.10 (0.54–2.22)42.31 (0.68–7.88)42.56 (0.71–9.19)0§
    Mâori68922.34 (0.57–9.59)611.03781.44 (1.09–1.90)1122.29 (1.65–3.19)772.71 (1.90–3.85)595.64 (3.86–8.24)
    Pacific590§81.0290.63 (0.27–1.43)121.06 (0.39–2.84)50.53 (0.16–1.75)52.68 (0.77–9.28)
    Asian120§11.082.04 (0.24–17.07)10.55 (0.02–14.62)11.70 (0.10–29.73)113.27 (0.66–265.17)
Smoking status
    Never smoker27125.74 (1.33–24.79)211.01421.61 (1.01–2.58)493.00 (1.75–5.14)322.97 (1.67–5.29)256.55 (3.55–12.08)
    Ex-smoker1210§111.0651.31 (0.67–2.54)191.49 (0.67–3.29)142.04 (0.89–4.70)123.45 (1.43–8.29)
    Current smoker2940§361.01791.13 (0.78–1.64)341.55 (0.93–2.56)261.88 (1.10–3.23)195.28 (2.92–9.54)
    Unknown12915.37 (0.70–41.37)141.0631.45 (0.80–2.64)272.96 (1.45–6.06)152.95 (1.34–6.49)95.95 (2.37–14.93)
  • *

    * Adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and smoking status.

  • Reference category.

  • Adjusted for age, ethnicity, and smoking status.

  • §

    § Not calculated due to zero deaths.

  • Adjusted for age, sex, and smoking status.

  • Adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity.