Table 2—

Age and multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for incident type 2 diabetes according to quintile of cumulative averaged intake of fruit and vegetables

Cumulative averaged intake of fruit and vegetables
Ptrend3 servings/day and 1 serving/day increase in intake*Median intake (quintile 1, 5) servings/day
Quintile 1Quintile 2Quintile 3Quintile 4Quintile 5
Vegetables
    n845877930976901
    Person-years233,945247,049249,343246,076227,581
    Age-adjusted1.000.96 (0.88–1.06)1.00 (0.91–1.10)1.05 (0.96–1.15)1.04 (0.95–1.15)0.131.06 (0.98–1.13)3.09 (1.61, 5.40)
    Model 11.000.98 (0.89–1.08)0.98 (0.89–1.08)1.03 (0.93–1.13)0.98 (0.88–1.09)0.921.00 (0.92–1.08)
    Model 2§1.001.00 (0.91–1.10)1.02 (0.93–1.12)1.08 (0.98–1.19)1.05 (0.94–1.16)0.221.04 (0.97–1.13)
Fruit
    n862988948914817
    Person-years237,964249,649247,769241,595227,017
    Age-adjusted1.001.06 (0.97–1.16)1.00 (0.91–1.10)0.97 (0.88–1.06)0.90 (0.82–0.99)0.0030.84 (0.74–0.94)1.08 (0.46, 2.64)
    Model 11.001.01 (0.92–1.11)0.94 (0.86–1.04)0.89 (0.81–0.98)0.81 (0.73–0.91)<0.0010.74 (0.65–0.84)
    Model 2§1.001.04 (0.94–1.14)0.99 (0.90–1.09)0.96 (0.86–1.06)0.90 (0.80–1.00)0.0080.82 (0.72–0.94)
Fruit and vegetables
    n870900945924890
    Person-years237,727248,219247,926244,157225,964
    Age-adjusted1.000.96 (0.88–1.06)0.99 (0.90–1.09)0.97 (0.88–1.07)1.00 (0.91–1.10)0.911.00 (0.96–1.05)4.47 (2.35, 7.66)
    Model 11.000.98 (0.89–1.07)0.95 (0.87–1.05)0.92 (0.84–1.02)0.92 (0.82–1.02)0.060.95 (0.90–1.00)
    Model 2§1.001.01 (0.92–1.11)1.00 (0.91–1.10)0.99 (0.89–1.09)1.01 (0.90–1.12)0.990.99 (0.94–1.05)
Fruit juices
    n7499461032920882
    Person-years239,408241,268250,260241,633231,425
    Age-adjusted1.001.21 (1.10–1.34)1.28 (1.17–1.41)1.17 (1.06–1.28)1.17 (1.06–1.29)0.101.05 (0.99–1.12)0.54 (0.04, 1.33)
    Model 11.001.20 (1.09–1.32)1.28 (1.16–1.40)1.25 (1.13–1.38)1.33 (1.20–1.48)<0.0011.17 (1.10–1.25)
    Model 2§1.001.21 (1.10–1.33)1.29 (1.17–1.42)1.25 (1.14–1.38)1.35 (1.22–1.50)<0.0011.18 (1.10–1.26)
Legumes
    n825874951968911
    Person-years248,849216,815248,202259,566230,563
    Age-adjusted1.001.12 (1.02–1.23)1.09 (0.99–1.20)1.08 (0.99–1.19)1.12 (1.02–1.23)0.111.20 (0.96, 1.50)0.17 (0.07, 0.45)
    Model 11.001.13 (1.03–1.25)1.10 (1.00–1.21)1.10 (1.00–1.21)1.09 (0.99–1.21)0.401.11 (0.87–1.40)
    Model 2§1.001.14 (1.03–1.25)1.12 (1.02–1.23)1.13 (1.02–1.24)1.14 (1.03–1.25)0.091.23 (0.97–1.56)
Green leafy vegetables
    n921957995837819
    Person-years223,958239,419256,196241,036243,385
    Age-adjusted1.000.96 (0.88–1.05)0.92 (0.84–1.00)0.81 (0.74–0.89)0.78 (0.71–0.86)<0.0010.80 (0.75–0.86)0.72 (0.25, 1.48)
    Model 11.000.99 (0.90–1.08)0.99 (0.90–1.09)0.90 (0.82–0.99)0.87 (0.78–0.96)<0.0010.88 (0.82–0.95)
    Model 2§1.001.00 (0.91–1.10)1.02 (0.93–1.11)0.93 (0.85–1.03)0.90 (0.82–1.00)0.0100.91 (0.84–0.98)
  • *

    * For vegetables, fruit, and fruit and vegetables combined, data for 3 servings/day increase are shown; for all other items, 1 serving/day increase is shown.

  • Shown is overall median intake for the entire category and, in parentheses, the median intakes for the lowest and highest quintiles, data are in servings/day distribution based on the cumulative average of median values from questionnaires from 1984, 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998.

  • Additionally adjusted for BMI, physical activity, family history of diabetes, postmenopausal hormone use, alcohol use, smoking, and total energy intake.

  • §

    § Adjusted for all variables in model 1 and additionally for whole grains, nuts, processed meats, coffee, potatoes, and sugar-sweetened soft drinks.

  • Neither fruit nor fruit and vegetables include fruit juices.