Table 3—

ORs (95% CI) of risk factors for incident retinopathy among those with diabetes at baseline

Incident retinopathy
Model 1: adjusted for age (years)1.03 (0.98–1.07)
Model 2: one by one adjustment
    Model 1 and sex0.72 (0.31–1.67)
    Model 1 and BMI (kg/m2)0.97 (0.99–1.05)
    Model 1 and SBP (mmHg)1.03 (1.01–1.06)
    Model 1 and total cholesterol (mmol/l)0.80 (0.23–2.80)
    Model 1 and FPG (mmol/l)1.52 (1.30–1.77)
    Model 1 and A1C (%)2.29 (1.75–3.02)
    Model 1 and PLG (mmol/l)1.24 (1.07–1.45)
    Model 1 and C-peptide (ng/ml)0.69 (0.53–0.91)
    Model 1 and duration of diabetes (years)1.06 (1.02–1.12)
    Model 1 and smoking1.61 (0.69–3.75)
Model 3: multivariate adjustment for
    C-peptide (ng/ml)0.56 (0.38–0.83)
    FPG (mmol/l)1.56 (1.32–1.85)
    BMI (kg/m2)1.03 (0.93–1.14)
    SBP (mmHg)1.04 (1.02–1.07)
    Age (years)1.04 (0.99–1.09)
  • Model 1: OR for retinopathy by age. Model 2: OR for incident retinopathy for each factor (sex, BMI, systolic blood pressure [SBP], total cholesterol, FPG, A1C, PLG, C-peptide, duration of diabetes, and smoking) adjusted for age. Model 3: OR of incident retinopathy for C-peptide, FPG, BMI, SBP, and age (adjusted for each other). PGL, postload glucose.