Table 4—

ORs (95% CI) for retinopathy as a risk factor for incident newly diagnosed diabetes (those with diabetes at baseline excluded)

Incident diabetes
Model 1: One by one adjustment:
    Baseline retinopathy2.37 (1.06–5.28)
    FPG (mmol/l)3.05 (1.91–4.87)
    SBP (mmHg)1.01 (0.99–1.02)
    Total cholesterol (mmol/l)1.16 (0.90–1.49)
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)2.21 (1.43–3.41)
    Waist circumference (cm)1.04 (1.02–1.06)
    Age (years)1.01 (0.99–1.03)
    Sex0.75 (0.45–1.24)
    Current smoking1.41 (0.65–3.09)
Model 2: adjusted for age and sex
    Baseline retinopathy2.31 (1.03–5.16)
    FPG (mmol/l)3.05 (1.86–4.98)
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)2.14 (1.38–3.32)
    Waist circumference (cm)1.04 (1.01–1.06)
Model 3: multivariate adjustment for
    Baseline retinopathy2.66 (1.14–6.21)
    FPG (mmol/l)2.56 (1.54–4.24)
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.82 (1.13–2.93)
    Waist circumference (cm)1.01 (0.99–1.04)
  • Model 1: univariate association of baseline retinopathy, FPG, triglycerides, waist circumference, age, sex, and smoking with incident diabetes. Model 2: association of retinopathy, FPG, triglycerides and waist circumference with incident diabetes (adjusted for age and sex). Model 3: association of baseline retinopathy, FPG, triglycerides, and waist circumference with incident diabetes (adjusted for each other). SBP, systolic blood pressure.