Table 3—

ORs (95% CI) for incident diabetes by category of baseline periodontal index among selected subgroups: NHANES I and NHEFS, 1971–1974 through 1992

SubgroupnCategory PI0Category PI1Category PI2Category PI3Category PI4Category PI5Edentulous
Smoking*
    Never4,2511.01.09 (0.53–2.23)1.33 (0.74–2.41)2.13 (1.15–3.92)1.63 (0.85–3.15)1.14 (0.63–2.05)1.31 (0.87–1.96)
    Former1,8011.00.95 (0.36–2.51)1.42 (0.58–3.43)1.74 (0.94–3.23)1.35 (0.63–2.89)1.67 (0.79–3.52)1.75 (0.89–3.43)
    Current2,8691.01.26 (0.68–2.31)0.51 (0.21–1.28)2.63 (1.34–5.17)1.80 (0.94–3.44)1.67 (0.78–3.61)0.95 (0.52–1.74)
Age
    <50 years4,7761.01.16 (0.64–2.10)0.87 (0.49–1.53)2.20 (1.36–3.58)1.84 (1.03–3.28)2.29 (1.15–4.57)1.38 (0.79–2.43)
    =50 years4,5291.00.98 (0.49–2.10)1.21 (0.63–2.35)1.99 (1.34–2.96)1.60 (0.98–2.59)1.17 (0.73–1.86)1.30 (0.92–1.85)
BMI
    BMI <25 kg/m24,7101.01.40 (0.50–3.90)1.03 (0.33–3.17)1.86 (0.76–4.54)2.41 (1.10–5.28)1.84 (0.78–4.34)2.64 (1.42–4.92)
    BMI ≥25 kg/m24,5771.01.06 (0.68–1.63)1.05 (0.69–1.61)2.06 (1.51–2.82)1.69 (1.12–2.54)1.55 (1.00–2.40)1.09 (0.78–1.51)
Sex
    Men3,6731.00.60 (0.28–1.29)0.77 (0.39–1.54)1.50 (0.89–2.55)1.65 (1.01–2.70)1.28 (0.72–2.28)1.21 (0.77–1.92)
    Women5,6131.01.90 (1.01–3.58)1.35 (0.79–2.28)2.84 (1.87–4.32)1.73 (0.84–3.54)1.80 (1.00–3.24)1.47 (1.03–2.09)
Race§
    Black1,4301.01.19 (0.57–2.53)0.53 (0.26–1.05)1.36 (0.64–2.89)1.07 (0.53–2.17)0.63 (0.24–1.62)0.61 (0.29–1.29)
    White7,7891.01.04 (0.65–1.65)1.09 (0.66–1.78)2.06 (1.40–3.03)1.79 (1.24–2.60)1.71 (1.13–2.60)1.37 (1.04–1.80)
  • *

    * Adjusted for age, sex, race, education, BMI, subscapular skinfold, physical activity level, hypertension, and total cholesterol.

  • Adjusted for age, sex, race, education, smoking status, BMI, subscapular skinfold, physical activity level, hypertension, and total cholesterol.

  • Adjusted for age, race, education, smoking status, BMI, subscapular skinfold, physical activity level, hypertension, and total cholesterol.

  • §

    § Adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking status, BMI, subscapular skinfold, physical activity level, hypertension, and total cholesterol; 80 participants defined as race = “other” were excluded from the race subgroup analysis due to sparse incident type 2 diabetes (three events).