Table 1

Clinical baseline data for patients enrolled in the study

VariableHealthy control subjectsPatients with normoalbuminuriaPatient with microalbuminuriaPatients with macroalbuminuria
Number of patients (male/female)111 (41/70)1,451 (688/763)319 (185/134)320 (178/142)
Age (years)39.6 ± 11.937.0 ± 12.339.1 ± 12.642.1 ± 10.5
Age of onset (years)17.4 ± 9.413.7 ± 9.412.8 ± 8.3
Diabetes duration (years)19.6 ± 11.725.4 ± 10.829.3 ± 7.8
BMI (kg/m2)23.8 ± 2.824.9 ± 0.1425.7 ± 3.726.2 ± 4.1
WHR
 Men0.94 ± 0.050.89 ± 0.070.92 ± 0.070.94 ± 0.07
 Women0.84 ± 0.040.80 ± 0.060.83 ± 0.070.84 ± 0.07
History of smoking (%)27.042.553.760.6
SBP (mmHg)126 ± 14130 ± 16137 ± 17144 ± 20
DBP (mmHg)77 ± 978 ± 981 ± 1083 ± 10
HbA1c (%)5.6 ± 0.38.3 ± 1.48.8 ± 1.59.1 ± 1.6
HbA1c (mmol/mol)38 ± 0.967 ± 4.273 ± 4.576 ± 4.8
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.82 ± 0.934.83 ± 0.904.97 ± 0.905.39 ± 1.10
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.56 ± 0.321.36 ± 0.381.30 ± 0.381.21 ± 0.37
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.80 ± 0.842.96 ± 0.813.07 ± 0.823.39 ± 0.87
Triglycerides (mmol/L)0.90 (0.69–1.17)0.94 (0.73–1.29)1.06 (0.81–1.52)1.37 (1.02–2.05)
AER (mg/24 h)3 (1–4)7 (5–12)51 (25–100)440 (176–1,207)
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)92 (76–111)87 (72–107)81 (64–101)46 (28–69)
C-reactive protein (mg/L)1.04 (0.53–2.37)1.87 (1.13–3.55)2.16 (1.27–4.70)2.68 (1.66–5.81)
Serum ADP (mg/L)
 All9.69 (7.33–12.17)10.69 (7.96–14.82)10.78 (7.92–15.08)14.7 (10.26–22.00)
 Men7.60 (5.26–9.65)8.80 (6.67–11.53)10.01 (7.24–13.19)12.45 (9.05–15.87)
 Women10.80 (8.37–13.40)13.14 (9.71–16.70)12.55 (9.04–19.07)18.68 (12.67–26.27)
uADP (μg/g)
 All0.34 (0.21–0.66)0.56 (0.26–1.31)0.97 (0.39–2.42)5.52 (1.53–22.9)
 Men0.23 (0.15–0.50)0.43 (0.21–0.99)0.82 (0.32–2.23)5.03 (1.51–20.14)
 Women0.42 (0.26–0.83)0.72 (0.32–1.54)1.07 (0.50–2.62)5.95 (1.77–24.67)
L-FABP (μg/μmol)0.01 (0.00–0.04)0.04 (0.01–0.09)0.09 (0.03–0.18)0.52 (0.19–1.97)
KIM-1 (ng/mmol)37.3 (18.6–58.3)26.2 (12.2–48.7)34.5 (16.4–62.0)48.5 (27.3–88.7)
  • Data are mean ± SD or median (interquartile range) unless otherwise indicated. DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure; WHR, waist-to-hip ratio.