Table 1—

Clinical criteria used for classification of new cases of diabetes with onset during childhood or adolescence

Type 1 diabetesType 2 diabetesMonogenic diabetes in isolationHNF1-β (MODY 5)Wolfram syndromePost-CMV infection
n30947231
Type 1 diabetes autoantibodies (ICA, GADA, IA-2A, IAA, ZnT8)*≥100000
BMINot considered>90th centileNormal, lowNormal, lowNormal, lowNormal, low
C-peptide (ng/ml)Low, undetectable>1.5Low, normal, high<1.5<1.5<1.5
Age range at diagnosis of diabetes1–18 years12–15 years2 years 7 months–15 years 4 months12–14 years10–14 years13 years
Features other than diabetesNoneHypertension, dislipidemiaNoneRenal disease, pancreas hypoplasia at ultrasound or NMR, abnormal liver enzymesOptic atrophy, diabetes insipidus, deafnessDocumented perinatal CMV infection, growth retardation, deafness
  • * Four patients were negative for ICA, GADA, IA-2A, and IAA but positive for ZnT8A.

  • At least two determinations 6 months apart. CMV, cytomegalovirus; MODY, maturity onset diabetes of the young; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance.