Table 1

Characteristics of 5,011 participants free of prevalent type 2 diabetes according to diet soda consumption categories in MESA

Rare or never> rare/never but <1 serving per week≥1 serving/week to <1 serving/day≥1 serving/dayP*
n2,961455914681
Median diet soda intake (serving/day)0.00.10.42.5
Sex (% male)48.943.743.748.50.11
Age (years)62.5 ± 0.261.2 ± 0.561.5 ± 0.358.9 ± 0.4<0.001
Race/ethnicity<0.001
    % white34.046.658.662.11
    % African American27.023.715.417.8
    % Hispanic22.718.021.115.3
    % Chinese16.311.74.84.9
High school degree (%)80.391.292.588.5<0.001
Active leisure (MET-min/week)2,357 ± 562,762 ± 1432,746 ± 1012,670 ± 117<0.001
Inactive leisure (MET-min/week)1,665 ± 211,692 ± 521,744 ± 371,628 ± 430.73
Smoking (% current)15.610.813.312.00.006
Cigarette pack-years11.5 ± 0.48.4 ± 1.010.1 ± 0.712.3 ± 0.90.87
Weekly supplement use (% current)58.554.558.957.90.42
Fasting insulin (mg/dl)44 ± 0.744 ± 1.443 ± 0.745 ± 1.40.80
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)89.9 ± 0.288.7 ± 0.589.1 ± 0.389.2 ± 0.40.03
BMI (kg/m2)27.3 ± 0.128.3 ± 0.228.5 ± 0.229.3 ± 0.2<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)95.6 ± 0.397.2 ± 0.698.3 ± 0.5100.6 ± 0.5<0.001
Dietary intake
    Energy (kcal/day)1,673 ± 141,608 ± 361,631 ± 251,871 ± 29<0.001
    Protein (g/day)65.5 ± 0.369.2 ± 0.768.3 ± 0.568.0 ± 0.6<0.001
    Total fat (g/day)65.4 ± 0.263.5 ± 0.664.0 ± 0.463.4 ± 0.5<0.001
    Saturated fat (g/day)20.7 ± 0.120.3 ± 0.320.5 ± 0.220.3 ± 0.20.11
    Monounsaturated fat (g/day)23.9 ± 0.123.1 ± 0.323.5 ± 0.223.2 ± 0.20.001
    Polyunsaturated fat (g/day)14.9 ± 0.114.0 ± 0.213.9 ± 0.213.9 ± 0.2<0.001
    Trans fat (g/day)3.3 ± 0.033.3 ± 0.13.5 ± 0.053.4 ± 0.10.002
    Carbohydrate (g/day)210 ± 0.7209 ± 2207 ± 1207 ± 10.007
    Fiber17.6 ± 0.118.7 ± 0.318.2 ± 0.217.8 ± 0.20.07
    Calcium (mg/day)746 ± 7799 ± 18794 ± 13769 ± 150.006
    Potassium (mg/day)2,645 ± 122,813 ± 312,789 ± 222,694 ± 26<0.001
    Magnesium (mg/day)258 ± 1273 ± 3274 ± 2269 ± 35<0.001
    Phosphorus (mg/day)1,057 ± 51,112 ± 131,121 ± 91,143 ± 11<0.001
    Sodium (mg/day)2,345 ± 112,393 ± 282,408 ± 202,431 ± 23<0.001
    Whole grains (servings/day)0.56 ± 0.010.66 ± 0.030.66 ± 0.020.62 ± 0.02<0.001
    Nuts/seeds0.28 ± 0.010.29 ± 0.020.31 ± 0.010.29 ± 0.020.12
    Fruit1.8 ± 0.032.0 ± 0.11.9 ± 0.11.9 ± 0.10.04
    Vegetables2.3 ± 0.022.4 ± 0.12.3 ± 0.042.3 ± 0.10.57
    White potatoes0.20 ± 0.0040.18 ± 0.010.20 ± 0.010.20 ± 0.010.66
    White bread, rice, pasta, cereal1.3 ± 0.011.2 ± 0.041.2 ± 0.031.2 ± 0.03<0.001
    Salty snacks0.21 ± 0.010.22 ± 0.010.24 ± 0.010.22 ± 0.010.05
    Desserts0.31 ± 0.010.29 ± 0.020.34 ± 0.010.36 ± 0.020.006
    Low-fat dairy products0.71 ± 0.020.91 ± 0.050.89 ± 0.040.81 ± 0.04<0.001
    High-fat dairy products0.53 ± 0.010.50 ± 0.030.46 ± 0.020.47 ± 0.020.001
    Red meat0.38 ± 0.010.39 ± 0.010.38 ± 0.010.37 ± 0.010.33
    Processed meat0.18 ± 0.0040.15 ± 0.010.16 ± 0.010.15 ± 0.010.004
    Nondiet soda0.45 ± 0.020.31 ± 0.040.28 ± 0.030.39 ± 0.03<0.001
    Coffee1.1 ± 0.031.2 ± 0.11.5 ± 0.11.4 ± 0.1<0.001
  • Data are means ± SE or %. Characteristics of participants free of prevalent metabolic syndrome (n = 3,878) across categories of diet soda consumption were similar.

  • *P for linear trend calculated with the categorical variable modeled continuously.

  • †With the exception of energy intake, all dietary variables are adjusted for kilocalories per day.