Table 2

Risk of incident metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes according to diet soda consumption categories in participants from MESA

Rare or never> rare/never but <1 serving/week≥1 serving/week to <1 serving/day≥1 serving/dayPtrend*
Metabolic syndrome
    n2,288367722501
    Cases47895169129
    HR (95% CI)1.001.34 (1.07–1.67)1.20 (1.00–1.43)1.31 (1.07–1.60)0.003
1.001.42 (1.14–1.78)1.28 (1.06–1.53)1.36 (1.11–1.66)<0.001
1.00§1.31 (1.05–1.64)1.13 (0.94–1.37)1.18 (0.96–1.44)0.06
1.001.30 (1.04–1.62)1.15 (0.95–1.38)1.17 (0.96–1.44)0.06
Type 2 diabetes
    n2,961455914681
    Cases221338475
    HR (95% CI)1.001.06 (0.73–1.52)1.39 (1.07–1.80)1.63 (1.24–2.13)<0.001
1.001.10 (0.76–1.59)1.46 (1.12–1.89)1.67 (1.27–2.20)<0.001
1.00§1.00 (0.69–1.45)1.23 (0.94–1.60)1.40 (1.06–1.84)0.01
1.000.98 (0.68–1.42)1.25 (0.96–1.62)1.38 (1.04–1.82)0.01
  • n = 5,011.

  • *Ptrend with categorical variable modeled continuously.

  • †Model 1 adjusted for study site, age, sex, race/ethnicity, and energy intake.

  • ‡Model 2 adjusted for the variables in model 1 above plus education, physical activity, smoking status, pack-years, and weekly or more supplement use.

  • §Adjusted for the variables in model 2 above + waist circumference (centimeters).

  • ‖Adjusted for the variables in model 2 above + waist circumference (centimeters) and BMI (weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters).