Table 1

Participant characteristics

Overall n = 16,0612–5 years old6–12 years old13–17 years old18–25 years old26–49 years old≥50 years old
n = 236n = 3,313n = 4,914n = 2,867n = 2,606n = 2,125
Demographic and clinical  characteristics
 Race/ethnicity, n (%)
  White non-Hispanic13,310 (83)179 (76)2,610 (79)3,823 (78)2,357 (82)2,327 (89)2,014 (95)
  Black non-Hispanic740 (5)16 (7)164 (5)292 (6)124 (4)89 (3)55 (3)
  Hispanic or Latino1,294 (8)25 (11)336 (10)540 (11)263 (9)106 (4)24 (1)
  Other699 (4)16 (7)194 (6)255 (5)121 (4)81 (3)32 (2)
 Annual household income, n (%)
  <$50,0003,540 (30)76 (38)823 (32)1,045 (29)514 (28)652 (30)430 (27)
  $50,000 to <$100,0004,299 (36)77 (39)934 (36)1,246 (34)639 (35)814 (38)589 (37)
  ≥$100,0004,116 (34)45 (23)845 (32)1,324 (37)653 (36)693 (32)556 (35)
 Education level, n (%)
  Less than Bachelor's degree6,459 (49)98 (44)1,415 (46)2,153 (46)1,229 (91)937 (38)927 (47)
  Bachelor's degree3,959 (29)60 (27)926 (30)1,324 (29)120 (9)993 (40)536 (27)
  Master's, professional, or doctorate3,072 (22)64 (28)786 (25)1,146 (25)5 (<1)554 (23)517 (26)
 Insurance status, n (%)
  Private11,226 (77)153 (70)2,263 (73)3,378 (75)1,816 (77)2,068 (85)1,548 (76)
  Other3,254 (22)64 (29)822 (27)1,096 (24)507 (22)321 (13)444 (22)
  None149 (1)1 (<1)13 (<1)24 (<1)26 (1)53 (2)32 (2)
 Duration of diabetes, mean ± SD13.3 ± 11.93.1 ± 0.85.5 ± 2.37.6 ± 3.611.1 ± 4.927.7 ± 10.132.6 ± 14.8
 Duration group, n (%)
  1 to <5 years3,766 (23)232 (98)1,630 (49)1,433 (29)314 (11)120 (5)37 (2)
  5 to <10 years5,027 (31)4 (2)1,517 (46)2,154 (44)962 (34)269 (10)121 (6)
  10 to <20 years4,095 (25)166 (5)1,327 (27)1,481 (52)794 (30)327 (15)
  20 to <30 years1,382 (9)110 (4)847 (33)425 (20)
  30 to <40 years949 (6)477 (18)472 (22)
  ≥40 years842 (5)99 (4)743 (35)
 BMI z score, mean ± SD0.4 ± 1.10.8 ± 0.90.6 ± 1.10.8 ± 1.00.2 ± 1.30.1 ± 1.1−0.1 ± 0.9
 BMI group, n (%)*
  Underweight/normal weight7,863 (54)136 (59)2,257 (69)2,885 (59)1,443 (55)639 (32)503 (32)
  Overweight4,120 (28)53 (23)651 (20)1,237 (25)837 (31)729 (37)613 (39)
  Obese2,633 (18)42 (18)388 (12)745 (15)389 (15)610 (31)459 (29)
Diabetes management
 Pump use, n (%)9,530 (60)146 (63)2,131 (65)2,810 (58)1,555 (55)1,625 (63)1,263 (60)
 CGM use, n (%)1,703 (11)31 (13)263 (8)249 (5)193 (7)590 (23)377 (18)
 SMBG, mean ± SD#4.7 ± 2.77.4 ± 2.96.2 ± 2.64.2 ± 2.33.5 ± 2.44.3 ± 2.74.8 ± 2.7
  0–3 times per day3,630 (34)3 (2)253 (11)1,316 (39)994 (55)689 (41)375 (30)
  4–6 times per day4,781 (45)63 (37)1,174 (50)1,575 (47)625 (35)712 (43)632 (51)
  6–9 times per day1,566 (15)75 (44)627 (27)360 (11)124 (7)193 (12)187 (15)
  ≥10 times per day578 (5)28 (17)286 (12)87 (3)48 (3)73 (4)56 (4)
 Downloading of meter at home,   n (%)§
  ≥1 time per month298 (12)6 (13)92 (17)73 (16)40 (9)49 (7)38 (9)
  Never1,671 (65)33 (70)277 (52)252 (55)310 (69)506 (77)293 (71)
 Noninsulin medications for   blood glucose control, n (%)
  Metformin515 (3)012 (<1)121 (2)100 (3)168 (6)114 (5)
  GLP-1 agonist116 (<1)002 (<1)18 (<1)64 (2)32 (2)
  DPP-4i12 (<1)00009 (<1)3 (<1)
  SGLT2i14 (<1)00009 (<1)5 (<1)
  Pramlintide128 (<1)01 (<1)2 (<1)11 (<1)61 (2)53 (2)
  Other30 (<1)0001 (<1)12 (<1)17 (<1)
  • ‡Income data missing for 4,106 participants, education data missing for 2,271 participants, and insurance data missing for 1,432 participants.Education level is the parents' highest education level for participants <18 years of age and is the participants' education level for participants >18 years of age.

  • *Underweight/normal weight defined as <85th BMI percentile adjusted for age and sex for participants <20 years of age and BMI <25 for adults ≥20 years of age. Overweight defined as 85th to <95th BMI percentile for participants <20 years of age and BMI 25 to <30 for adults ≥20 years of age. Obese defined as ≥95th BMI percentile for participants <20 years of age and BMI ≥30 for adults ≥20 years of age.

  • #SMBG from meter download was available for 10,555 participants.

  • §Only available for a subset of participants who completed an electronic questionnaire asking about insulin and device use; n = 2,561 (n = 47 for 2–5 years, 534 for 6–12 years, 455 for 13–17 years, 451 for 18–25 years, 661 for 26–49 years, and 413 for ≥50 years).

  • ‖Includes thiazolidinediones and sulfonylureas.