Table 1

Hazard ratios for outcomes by different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

nMSWHOPMSNCEPPMSIDFP
New cardiovascular event2635.73 (4.14–7.92)<0.0012.45 (1.92–3.14)<0.0011.66 (1.30–2.11)0.001
    Adjusted for traditional risk factors*3.65 (2.59–5.14)<0.0011.89 (1.46–2.46)0.0011.09 (0.84–1.41)0.535
    Further adjusted for previous cardiovascular event2.98 (2.10–4.24)<0.0011.64 (1.23–2.14)<0.0011.03 (0.79–1.33)0.833
    Further adjusted for diabetic nephropathy2.05 (1.38–3.04)<0.0011.31 (0.99–1.72)0.0560.96 (0.74–1.25)0.759
New myocardial infarction16110.29 (6.14–17.25)<0.0012.61 (1.90–3.59)<0.0011.76 (1.29–2.39)<0.001
    Adjusted for traditional risk factors*6.30 (3.68–10.78)<0.0011.85 (1.32–2.59)<0.0011.16 (0.83–1.62)0.375
    Further adjusted for previous myocardial infarction5.80 (3.38–9.97)<0.0011.67 (1.19–2.35)0.0031.11 (0.79–1.54)0.558
    Further adjusted for diabetic nephropathy3.10 (1.70–5.68)<0.0011.17 (0.83–1.65)0.3801.00 (0.72–1.40)0.992
New stroke807.51 (3.86–14.60)<0.0011.94 (1.25–3.02)0.0031.10 (0.70–1.73)0.684
    Adjusted for traditional risk factors*4.86 (2.42–9.77)<0.0011.51 (0.94–2.44)0.0900.73 (0.45–1.20)0.218
    Further adjusted for previous stroke4.49 (2.22–9.07)<0.0011.45 (0.89–2.34)0.1330.65 (0.40–1.08)0.096
    Further adjusted for diabetic nephropathy2.81 (1.29–6.15)0.0101.05 (0.64–1.71)0.8590.66 (0.40–1.07)0.093
Cardiovascular- and diabetes-related mortality23811.05 (7.25–16.85)<0.0012.87 (2.21–3.73)<0.0011.79 (1.39–2.31)<0.001
    Adjusted for traditional risk factors*7.33 (4.69–11.46)<0.0012.15 (1.63–2.84)<0.0011.20 (0.92–1.58)0.185
    Further adjusted for diabetic nephropathy2.52 (1.53–4.16)<0.0011.31 (0.99–1.73)0.0631.00 (0.76–1.32)0.986
Progression
    Normal UAER to microalbuminuria1182.10 (1.42–3.12)<0.0011.13 (0.77–1.68)0.5311.30 (0.88–1.92)0.191
    Micro- to macroalbuminuria542.42 (0.96–6.12)0.0621.57 (0.91–2.71)0.1021.65 (0.93–2.92)0.085
    Macroalbuminuria to ESRD1302.57 (1.13–5.86)0.0251.65 (1.13–2.40)0.0090.52 (0.36–0.75)<0.001
  • Data are HR (95% CI), derived from Cox regression analyses.

  • *Adjusted for age, sex, smoking, LDL cholesterol, and A1C.

  • †Adjusted for duration of diabetes, sex, smoking, and A1C.