Table 3

Dietary intake at each time point

Baseline6 months*12 months
Caloric intake (kcal/day)
    Low-carbohydrate diet1,983 ± 6501,652 ± 6501,642 ± 600
    Low-fat diet1,863 ± 4501,653 ± 4711,810 ± 590
    P value for low-carbohydrate diet vs. low-fat diet0.280.990.30
Carbohydrate intake (% total energy)
    Low-carbohydrate diet43.9 ± 9.133.5 ± 14.733.4 ± 13.2
    Low-fat diet41.2 ± 10.448.1 ± 14.150.1 ± 10.0
    P value for low-carbohydrate diet vs. low-fat diet0.14<0.001<0.001
Fat intake (% total energy)
    Low-carbohydrate diet36.1 ± 7.643.0 ± 13.143.9 ± 10.8
    Low-fat diet38.8 ± 9.430.8 ± 9.830.8 ± 10.2
    P value for low-carbohydrate diet vs. low-fat diet0.12<0.001<0.001
Saturated fat (% total fat)
    Low-carbohydrate diet31.3 ± 7.928.6 ± 8.828.7 ± 9.6
    Low-fat diet31.5 ± 7.030.7 ± 8.430.2 ± 5.4
    P value for low-carbohydrate diet vs. low-fat diet0.910.330.43
Polyunsaturated fat (% total fat)
    Low-carbohydrate diet19.1 ± 7.619.1 ± 7.517.4 ± 8.0
    Low-fat diet19.6 ± 9.019.8 ± 8.021.4 ± 8.6
    P value for low-carbohydrate diet vs. low-fat diet0.760.700.06
Monounsaturated fat (% total fat)
    Low-carbohydrate diet36.1 ± 7.039.5 ± 11.040.7 ± 10.4
    Low-fat diet37.6 ± 6.935.2 ± 8.738.1 ± 6.9
    P value for low-carbohydrate diet vs. low-fat diet0.280.080.25
Protein intake (% total energy)
    Low-carbohydrate diet19.5 ± 6.322.5 ± 6.022.7 ± 6.7
    Low-fat diet19.4 ± 6.620.5 ± 7.018.9 ± 4.7
    P value for low-carbohydrate diet vs. low-fat diet0.940.180.02
Fiber (g/day)
    Low-carbohydrate diet15.4 ± 8.512.6 ± 10.715.1 ± 9.5
    Low-fat diet14.9 ± 8.517.0 ± 9.717.2 ± 8.1
    P value for low-carbohydrate diet vs. low-fat diet0.780.090.36
  • Data are means ± SD.

  • *Based on 24-h recall from 68 participants.

  • †Based on 24-h recall from 57 participants.