Table 1

Food group intake and odds of type 2 diabetes by tertile of DASH dietary pattern score

n/Nβ (P)Tertiles of the DASH score
P for trend
123
DASH score38.4 ± 5.349.5 ± 2.560.2 ± 4.5
Food group (serving/day)
    Total grains*2.6 ± 1.52.9 ± 1.53.3 ± 1.4
    High-fiber grains0.5 ± 0.60.8 ± 0.71.2 ± 0.8
    Vegetables2.5 ± 1.53.3 ± 1.84.1 ± 1.6
    Fruit§1.3 ± 1.12.3 ± 1.63.3 ± 1.6
    Total dairy0.9 ± 0.61.0 ± 0.71.2 ± 0.8
    Low-fat dairy0.1 ± 0.20.2 ± 0.30.4 ± 0.4
    Meat, poultry, eggs, fish#2.0 ± 1.21.7 ± 1.01.7 ± 0.9
    Nuts, seeds, dried beans**2.2 ± 2.73.0 ± 3.33.9 ± 2.9
    Fats and oils††1.8 ± 1.41.6 ± 1.01.4 ± 0.9
    Sweets‡‡11.0 ± 8.67.5 ± 6.45.6 ± 6.1
Total population
    Model 1§§141/864−0.032 (0.77)1.000.86 (0.54–1.38)0.73 (0.45–1.21)0.47
    Model 2‖‖141/862−0.002 (0.98)1.000.94 (0.58–1.52)0.78 (0.47–1.29)0.60
    Model 3¶¶129/822−0.066 (0.58)1.000.88 (0.51–1.51)0.64 (0.37–1.13)0.29
Whites
    Model 1§§54/347−0.429 (0.02)1.000.53 (0.24–1.15)0.25 (0.11–0.61)<0.01
    Model 2‖‖54/346−0.349 (0.07)1.000.66 (0.29–1.48)0.31 (0.13–0.75)0.03
    Model 3¶¶49/327−0.414 (0.05)1.000.77 (0.31–1.90)0.25 (0.09–0.67)0.02
Blacks/Hispanics
    Model 1§§87/5170.176 (0.20)1.001.11 (0.59–2.07)1.34 (0.70–2.55)0.67
    Model 2‖‖87/5160.183 (0.19)1.001.16 (0.61–2.18)1.34 (0.70–2.58)0.68
    Model 3¶¶80/4950.075 (0.63)1.000.90 (0.45–1.80)0.96 (0.46–1.97)0.95
  • Data are means ± SD, OR, and OR (95% CI) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *High-fiber dark bread and cereal, low-fiber bread and cereal, salty snacks, rice, and pasta.

  • †High-fiber dark bread and cereal.

  • ‡Tomato vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, other vegetables, potatoes, and fries.

  • §Fruit and fruit juices.

  • ‖Milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, cheese, and ice cream.

  • ¶Milk and yogurt up to 2% fat.

  • #All meats including processed meats, poultry, eggs, fish, and shellfish.

  • **Nuts, seeds, dried beans, and tofu.

  • ††Fats, oils, salad dressing, gravies, and creamer.

  • ‡‡Sweets including chocolate, regular soft drinks, and pastry.

  • §§Adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity/clinic, glucose tolerance status, family history of diabetes, education, smoking status, energy intake, and energy expenditure.

  • ‖‖Adjusted for covariates contained in model 1 plus baseline BMI.

  • ¶¶Adjusted for covariates contained in model 2 plus baseline insulin sensitivity and secretion. β, change per 10-unit increase in the DASH score; n, case subjects; N, population at risk.