Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants

CR groupCREX groupEX groupAmong-group P*
Participants, n171916
Female sex13 (76)15 (79)11 (69)0.85
Age, years57 ± 157 ± 156 ± 10.86
Race0.26
 Caucasian16 (94)14 (74)12 (75)
 African American0 (0)4 (21)3 (19)
 Other or not specified1 (6)1 (5)1 (6)
Body weight, kg
 Women73.2 ± 1.877.2 ± 1.774.2 ± 1.80.26
 Men92.4 ± 5.698.7 ± 5.686.3 ± 5.00.30
BMI, kg/m227.7 ± 0.428.3 ± 0.427.0 ± 0.40.08
Waist circumference, cm
 Women88.6 ± 2.688.7 ± 1.890.4 ± 2.10.81
 Men101.9 ± 2.0108.0 ± 4.896.6 ± 3.10.11
Energy intake, kcal/day2,243 ± 1452,310 ± 1371,909 ± 1490.12
TEE, kcal/day2,068 ± 882,092 ± 862,143 ± 940.84
Activity energy expenditure, kcal/day425 ± 43439 ± 43423 ± 460.96
VO2max, mL/kg/min
 Women25 ± 122 ± 124 ± 10.22
 Men32 ± 328 ± 328 ± 30.60
Fasting glucose, mmol/L5.4 ± 0.15.4 ± 0.15.2 ± 0.10.48
2-h glucose, mmol/L7.3 ± 0.56.3 ± 0.57.0 ± 0.50.37
Hemoglobin A1c
 %5.6 ± 0.15.7 ± 0.15.7 ± 0.10.69
 mmol/mol38 ± 139 ± 139 ± 10.69
Prediabetes prevalence9 (53)10 (53)9 (56)1.00
Provisional diabetes prevalence2 (12)1 (5)0 (0)0.51
Total cholesterol, mg/dL202 ± 7206 ± 9178 ± 60.15
Systolic BP, mmHg127 ± 3127 ± 3125 ± 30.79
Diastolic BP, mmHg82 ± 278 ± 282 ± 20.33
  • Values are reported as counts (%) for categorical data and the mean ± SE for quantitative data, unless otherwise indicated. Prediabetes and provisional diabetes were determined based on clinical criteria from the American Diabetes Association (21).

  • *Between-group P values for quantitative data are from ANOVAs, and those for categorical data are from Fisher exact tests.