Table 2

FSOGTT responses

CRCREXEXAmong-group P
ISI (Stumvoll et al. [13]), μU/kg/pM
 Baseline0.072 ± 0.0060.076 ± 0.0090.085 ± 0.0050.43
 Final0.083 ± 0.0060.098 ± 0.0050.093 ± 0.007
 Adjusted change0.009 ± 0.0040.021 ± 0.004*0.010 ± 0.0040.04
 Within-group P0.02<0.00010.01
ISI (Matsuda and DeFronzo [16] index)
 Baseline4.4 ± 0.75.5 ± 0.95.5 ± 0.60.52
 Final5.3 ± 0.68.2 ± 1.26.3 ± 0.8
 Adjusted change0.8 ± 0.62.9 ± 0.6*0.7 ± 0.70.03
 Within-group P0.23<0.00010.27
Glucose AUC, mmol/L·min
 Baseline986 ± 46910 ± 55897 ± 440.40
 Final981 ± 49846 ± 36921 ± 53
 Adjusted change14 ± 34−71 ± 3212 ± 350.12
 Within-group P0.680.030.74
Insulin AUC, ×103 pmol/L·min
 Baseline56.8 ± 6.756.8 ± 9.544.1 ± 5.80.43
 Final43.5 ± 3.543.3 ± 8.336.4 ± 4.8
 Adjusted change−12.0 ± 3.4−12.2 ± 3.2−10.6 ± 3.60.94
 Within-group P0.0010.00040.005
C-peptide AUC, nmol/L·min
 Baseline1,184 ± 691,113 ± 1011,052 ± 800.58
 Final1,041 ± 64957 ± 103958 ± 80
 Adjusted change−128 ± 54−156 ± 51−108 ± 560.82
 Within-group P0.020.0040.06
ISR AUC, ×103 pmol
 Baseline29.2 ± 1.826.9 ± 2.525.9 ± 2.00.57
 Final25.9 ± 1.722.7 ± 2.423.3 ± 2.2
 Adjusted change−2.8 ± 1.4−4.3 ± 1.4−2.9 ± 1.50.69
 Within-group P0.060.0020.05
Φ, 109 min−1
 Baseline34.5 ± 2.132.9 ± 2.834.5 ± 2.80.89
 Final31.3 ± 2.229.0 ± 3.130.3 ± 2.2
 Adjusted change−2.9 ± 2.2−4.4 ± 2.1−3.9 ± 2.30.89
 Within-group P0.200.040.09
Insulin clearance index (ISR:insulin AUC ratio)
 Baseline0.58 ± 0.040.57 ± 0.040.66 ± 0.050.26
 Final0.62 ± 0.030.64 ± 0.050.70 ± 0.05
 Adjusted change0.04 ± 0.030.07 ± 0.030.05 ± 0.030.66
 Within-group P0.200.010.09
GLP-1 AUC, pmol/L·min
 Baseline1,357 ± 1241,582 ± 1391,273 ± 1040.20
 Final1,169 ± 1001,636 ± 1571,407 ± 143
 Adjusted change−199 ± 9586 ± 91106 ± 990.05
 Within-group P0.040.350.29
GIP AUC, pmol/L·min
 Baseline4,299 ± 3504,050 ± 3983,445 ± 4330.32
 Final3,898 ± 2953,654 ± 3713,460 ± 353
 Adjusted change−292 ± 216−364 ± 203−139 ± 2240.76
 Within-group P0.180.080.54
DPP-IV (fasting), ng/mL
 Baseline402 ± 15371 ± 24368 ± 240.48
 Final373 ± 14375 ± 27348 ± 25
 Adjusted change−22.9 ± 17.32.0 ± 16.2−23.2 ± 17.70.47
 Within-group P0.190.900.20
  • Values are reported as arithmetic means ± SE, except for adjusted change values, which are least squares means ± SE that have been adjusted for differences in baseline values among groups. Φ, pancreatic β-cell sensitivity to glucose according to the C-peptide minimal model analysis (17,18). Insulin clearance index was calculated as the ratio of total ISR AUC to insulin AUC (19). Among-group P, significance of the among-group differences in change values after adjustment for baseline values using ANCOVA.

  • *P ≤ 0.05 vs. CR and EX groups;

  • P ≤ 0.05 vs. CREX and EX groups.