Table 1

Clinical and laboratory characteristics at baseline between progressors and nonprogressors by renal status

Normal renal statusSignificant CKD
Progressors n = 263Nonprogressors n = 601PProgressors n = 75Nonprogressors n = 30P
Age (years)42 ± 837 ± 8<0.000141 ± 835 ± 80.0005
Male (%)6438<0.000162700.47
Type 1 diabetes (%)47400.0380630.07
Smoking current (%)1270.0311100.90
Smoking ever (%)22190.3129200.31
Hypertension (%)249<0.000147310.13
Systolic BP (mmHg)119 ± 13112 ± 11<0.0001122 ± 14121 ± 140.82
Diastolic BP (mmHg)80 ± 976 ± 7<0.000180 ± 1081 ± 100.81
Baseline square root CAC volume3.5 ± 5.90.22 ± 1.0<0.00015.5 ± 9.00.9 ± 2.40.006
BMI (kg/m2)27 ± 425 ± 4<0.000126 ± 427 ± 40.82
Waist circumference (cm)
    Male96 ± 1188 ± 10<0.000193 ± 1091 ± 110.56
    Female84 ± 1378 ± 11<0.000184 ± 1478 ± 120.42
Waist-to-hip ratio
    Male0.90 ± 0.060.86 ± 0.06<0.00010.89 ± 0.050.88 ± 0.050.30
    Female0.78 ± 0.060.76 ± 0.060.0020.79 ± 0.070.79 ± 0.070.97
Uric acid (mg/dl)
    Male5.9 (5.2–6.8)5.8 (5.2–6.4)0.426.2 (5.4–7.3)6.5 (5.6–7.7)0.32
    Female4.8 (4.2–5.4)4.5 (4.0–5.1)0.015.3 (4.6–5.8)5.0 (4.5–5.9)0.52
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)183 ± 36183 ± 360.27184 ± 35179 ± 410.76
HDL (mg/dl)49 ± 1455 ± 16<0.000153 ± 1649 ± 140.29
LDL (mg/dl)111 ± 32106 ± 320.03107 ± 30107 ± 310.88
Triglycerides (mg/dl)105 (73–149)90 (64–121)<0.000196 (62–138)107 (71–139)0.41
A1C (%)
    Type 1 diabetes7.8 ± 1.17.7 ± 1.20.858.3 ± 1.37.9 ± 0.90.20
    Control subjects5.6 ± 0.45.4 ± 0.3<0.00015.8 ± 0.55.4 ± 0.40.03
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)1.1 (1.1–1.3)1.1 (1.0–1.3)0.0091.3 (1.1–1.5)1.4 (1.2–1.8)0.18
Cystatin C (mg/l)0.78 (0.72–0.84)0.76 (0.69–0.82)0.0070.95 (0.79–0.96)0.92 (0.76–1.03)0.84
ACR (mg/g creatinine)4.8 (3.2–6.6)4.4 (3.2–5.7)0.0359.7 (26–179)51 (15–276)0.69
ACE inhibitors/ARB use (%)1680.00157200.0005
Thiazide diuretic use (%)52.30.041830.001
Statin use (%)175<0.000125100.08
Alcohol intake positive (%)79770.8659750.05
Number of alcohol drinks/month21 ± 3515 ± 250.0211 ± 2111 ± 180.90
MetS (%)18.28.3<0.000130.613.30.06
  • Data are means ± SD, %, or geometric means (interquartile range). Any alcohol intake is defined as 12 or more drinks during their lifetime. Drinks per month are a combination of standard amounts of beer (12 oz.), wine (3.5 oz.), or hard liquor (1.5 oz.). ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; ARB, angiotensin receptor blockers; BP, blood pressure.