Table 1

Sample profile

All respondentsType 1 diabetesType 2 diabetes
N502114388
Sex
    M5541%59%
    F4559%41%
Race/ethnicity
    White7370%74%
    Hispanic1119%9%
    African American118%12%
    Other535
Current age (years)54.9 ± 13.946.9 ± 15.657.5 ± 12.2
Education
    No college492444
    Some college283826
    College graduate141713
    Graduate school92117
Employment
    Full-time employment283327
    Part-time employment10168
    Not employed (student)8147
    Not employed (disabled)8210
    Other463548
Household income ($)
    <15,000232323
    15,000–24,99911512
    25,000–34,999101010
    35,000–49,999131114
    50,000–74,999161217
    ≥75,000132510
    No answer141414
History of depression323033
History of cardiovascular disease715875
History of obesity362041
Duration of diabetes (years)14.8 ± 10.221.4 ± 13.012.8 ± 8.3
Diabetes care provider
    Primary care physician614666
    Endocrinologist284822
    Nonphysician11612
Engage in physical activity395534
Follow healthy diet556552
Insulin injection device
    Pen303329
    Syringe706771
Change needle each use565058
Daily injection frequency2.7 ± 1.43.5 ± 1.32.5 ± 1.3
Plan daily activities around insulin injections223219
Interference with eating and exercise*1.7 ± 0.81.9 ± 0.81.6 ± 0.8
Interference with activity of daily living*0.5 ± 1.00.7 ± 1.30.5 ± 1.0
Dissatisfaction with time needed for injection†2.0 ± 0.91.9 ± 0.92.1 ± 0.9
Dissatisfaction with injection ease of use†2.0 ± 0.91.9 ± 0.92.0 ± 0.9
Dissatisfaction with injection pain†2.3 ± 0.92.2 ± 0.92.3 ± 0.9
Dissatisfaction with injection inflammation/bruising†2.4 ± 1.02.4 ± 0.92.5 ± 1.0
Dissatisfaction with injection embarrassment†2.0 ± 0.92.1 ± 0.92.0 ± 0.9
Negative affect toward injections‡1.8 ± 0.91.6 ± 0.71.9 ± 0.9
Worry about hypoglycemia*2.7 ± 0.92.8 ± 1.02.7 ± 0.9
Skip insulin injections§1.8 ± 0.81.7 ± 0.71.8 ± 0.8
  • Data are % or means ± SD, unless otherwise stated.

  • *1 = not at all, 2 = a little, 3 = a moderate amount, 4 = a great deal.

  • †1 = very satisfied, 2 = satisfied, 3 = somewhat satisfied, 4 = not at all satisfied.

  • ‡1 = strongly disagree, 2 = somewhat disagree, 3 = somewhat agree, 4 = strongly agree.

  • §1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = sometimes, 4 = often.