Table 2

Multiple regression analysis of frequency of insulin injection omission

BSEβSignificance
Female sex*−0.0450.067−0.0280.499
White race/ethnicity†−0.0060.073−0.0030.936
Current age (years)−0.0150.003−0.256<0.001
Education‡
    Some college−0.0010.076−0.0010.990
    College graduate−0.0230.100−0.0100.818
    Graduate school0.3050.1210.1090.012
Employment§
    Not employed (student)0.2730.1250.0940.030
    Not employed (disabled)−0.3170.120−0.1070.009
    Part-time employment−0.1360.104−0.0510.192
    Full-time employment−0.1080.078−0.0610.166
Household income ($)−0.0680.017−0.176<0.001
History of depression0.0480.0720.0280.504
History of cardiovascular disease−0.0280.072−0.0160.699
History of obesity−0.0620.070−0.0380.371
Type 2 diabetes‖0.4280.0920.226<0.001
Duration of diabetes0.0010.0040.0190.686
Diabetes care provider¶
    Endocrinologist−0.0850.077−0.0480.270
    Nonphysician−0.1690.102−0.0660.096
Engage in physical activity−0.0930.071−0.0570.186
Follow healthy diet−0.1570.069−0.0980.023
Use insulin pen#−0.0010.074−0.0010.989
Needle change frequency−0.0490.070−0.0310.479
Daily injection frequency0.1180.0250.205<0.001
Plan daily activities around insulin injections0.2470.0790.1290.002
Interference with activity of daily living0.1120.0330.1460.001
Dissatisfaction with injection pain0.1300.0420.1490.002
Dissatisfaction with injection embarrassment0.1460.0410.169<0.001
  • *Reference category = male.

  • †Reference category = nonwhite.

  • ‡Reference category = no college.

  • §Reference category = other not employed.

  • ‖Reference category = type 1 diabetes.

  • ¶Reference category = primary care physician.

  • #Reference category = use syringe.