Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population, according to quartiles of daily nutritional total protein intake

Quartile 1 (low)Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4 (high)
Participants9,5239,5249,5249,523
Male sex2,643 (27.8)2,685 (28.2)2,450 (25.7)1,962 (20.6)
Age (years)48 ± 1248 ± 1250 ± 1251 ± 11
Energy intake (kcal/day)2,036 ± 6452,106 ± 6182,078 ± 6021,998 ± 622
Animal protein intake (g/day)35.2 ± 7.044.5 ± 5.251.3 ± 5.262.9 ± 8.3
Vegetable protein intake (g/day)27.0 ± 5.527.6 ± 4.827.6 ± 4.826.9 ± 4.7
Saturated fat intake (g/day)31.2 ± 6.232.5 ± 5.633.0 ± 5.633.4 ± 5.9
Polyunsaturated fat intake (g/day)15.3 ± 4.315.3 ± 3.814.9 ± 3.714.2 ± 3.6
Monounsaturated fat intake (g/day)29.2 ± 5.529.7 ± 5.029.6 ± 5.029.2 ± 5.2
Cholesterol intake (mg/day)190.0 ± 53.0210.4 ± 51.1223.4 ± 53.5245.3 ± 64.2
Carbohydrate intake (g/day)231.5 ± 34.3223.7 ± 29.0219.3 ± 28.2213.6 ± 28.8
Glycemic load intake (g/day)120.8 ± 24.7114.7 ± 20.1110.8 ± 18.9106.0 ± 18.3
Fiber intake (g/day)22.1 ± 5.223.2 ± 4.623.8 ± 4.624.2 ± 4.7
Vitamin C intake (mg/day)101.4 ± 49.7106.6 ± 43.1111.6 ± 42.6118.0 ± 44.0
Vitamin E intake (mg/day)12.9 ± 3.612.5 ± 3.212.1 ± 3.011.5 ± 3.0
Magnesium intake (mg/day)304.9 ± 46.2327.2 ± 41.7343.9 ± 40.9365.9 ± 43.3
Iron intake (mg/day)10.8 ± 1.611.3 ± 1.511.7 ± 1.612.1 ± 1.7
Heme iron intake (mg/day)1.6 ± 0.71.9 ± 0.72.1 ± 0.72.5 ± 0.9
Alcohol intake (g/day)15.8 ± 24.411.0 ± 15.99.7 ± 13.98.0 ± 12.6
BMI (kg/m2)24.7 ± 3.725.3 ± 3.725.8 ± 3.926.7 ± 4.3
Waist circumference (cm)83.1 ± 11.284.6 ± 11.285.5 ± 11.287.1 ± 11.7
Current smoker3,655 (38.4)3,014 (31.7)2,541 (26.8)2,420 (25.5)
Physically inactive*3,983 (41.8)3,609 (37.9)3,482 (36.6)3,413 (35.9)
Higher education1,993 (20.9)2,104 (22.1)2,030 (21.3)1,703 (17.9)
Parental history of diabetes1,559 (16.4)1,615 (17.0)1,767 (18.5)1,922 (20.2)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)124.3 ± 18.6125.3 ± 18.8126.6 ± 18.7127.8 ± 19.0
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)77.2 ± 10.677.5 ± 10.578.0 ± 10.678.4 ± 10.7
Hypertension3,108 (32.6)3,307 (34.7)3,491 (36.7)3,762 (39.5)
  • Data are n (%) or means ± SD.

  • *Inactive according to Cambridge physical activity index.