Table 3

Multivariable HRs (95% CI) for the association between the consumption of 5% energy from protein at the expense of 5% energy from fat or carbohydrates while keeping total energy intake constant and incident type 2 diabetes

Model 3*Model 4†
Total protein
    Substitution protein for fat1.72 (1.41–2.12)‡1.31 (1.06–1.61)§
    Substitution protein for carbohydrates1.91 (1.52–2.40)‡1.28 (1.01–1.61)§
Animal protein
    Substitution protein for fat1.51 (1.26–1.82)‡1.19 (0.99–1.44)
    Substitution protein for carbohydrates1.72 (1.39–2.12)‡1.20 (0.97–1.49)
Vegetable protein
    Substitution protein for fat1.13 (0.67–1.92)1.32 (0.82–2.13)
    Substitution protein for carbohydrates0.97 (0.57–1.65)1.17 (0.73–1.89)
  • Data are HRs (95% CI).

  • *Model 3: corrected for sex (male or female), age at recruitment (continuous), energy-adjusted intake of cholesterol, vitamin E, magnesium, fiber, and glycemic load (continuous), total energy intake (continuous), energy densities of fat, carbohydrates, and alcohol (per 5 energy %), physical activity (not active, moderately inactive, moderately active, or active), mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure (continuous), education level (high, middle, or low), and parental history of diabetes (no, one parent, or both parents).

  • †Model 4: model 3 + BMI (<20, 20–25 [reference group], 25–30, or >30 kg/m2) and waist circumference (continuous).

  • ‡Significant at P < 0.001 level.

  • §Significant at P < 0.05 level.