Table 1

Selected characteristics of the 2004–2005 AusDiab population according to sex

WomenMenP
n2,7612,103
Age (years)54.8 (54.3–55.2)54.9 (54.4–55.5)0.70
Completed university/further education (%)64.5 (62.7–66.3)69.4 (67.4–71.3)<0.001
Current smoker (%)7.2 (6.2–8.1)10.5 (9.2–11.8)<0.001
Employed (%)59.5 (57.7–61.3)71.8 (69.8–73.7)<0.001
Parental history of diabetes (%)20.4 (18.9–21.9)17.6 (16.0–19.3)0.02
Total energy intake (KJ/day)6,925 (6,845–7,005)9,216 (9,099–9,333)<0.001
Antihypertensive medication (%)19.8 (18.3–21.3)17.8 (16.2–19.5)0.09
Lipid-lowering medication (%)11.0 (9.9–12.2)13.3 (11.9–14.8)0.02
Total alcohol (ml/day)9.31 (8.83–9.78)20.3 (19.4–21.2)<0.001
Diet quality index (DQI-R, 1–100)*66.5 (66.1–67.0)61.5 (61.0–62.0)<0.001
Leisure-time physical activity (h/day)0.66 (0.63–0.69)0.77 (0.73–0.80)<0.001
Sitting time (h/day)5.19 (5.09–5.29)5.71 (5.60–5.82)<0.001
TV viewing time (h/day)1.73 (1.68–1.78)1.89 (1.84–1.94)<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)86.5 (86.0–87.0)98.1 (97.6–98.6)<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)27.3 (27.0–27.5)27.7 (27.5–27.8)0.003
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)119.4 (118.6–120.1)126.9 (126.2–127.7)<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)65.6 (65.2–65.9)73.0 (72.6–73.4)<0.001
2-h postload plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.55 (5.50–5.61)5.54 (5.47–5.62)0.86
Fasting serum triglycerides (mmol/l)1.14 (1.12–1.16)1.39 (1.36–1.42)<0.001
Fasting HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.55 (1.53–1.56)1.24 (1.22–1.25)<0.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.19 (5.17–5.21)5.44 (5.41–5.46)<0.001
Fasting serum insulin (pmol/l)46.9 (45.9–48.0)52.0 (50.6–53.4)<0.001
  • Data are means (95% CI) or %. Geometric means are reported for fasting triglycerides, fasting HDL cholesterol, plasma glucose, 2-h postload plasma glucose, and fasting insulin: natural log transformations of these variables were used to test for sex differences.

  • *Based on a revised scale of 1–100, with 100 representing high diet quality.