Table 3

Bivariable analysis: baseline characteristics, glucose measures at baseline and on treatment, and their relationships to outcomes, including the primary outcome (for a composite of neonatal outcomes, see text), preeclampsia, and customized SGA and LGA

nPrimary outcomePreeclampsiaCustomized SGA and LGA
%OR (95% CI)P%OR (95% CI)PSGA (%)OR (95% CI)*LGA (%)OR (95% CI)*P
Baseline characteristics
    Ethnicity
        European Caucasian/mixed37334.61.000.035.11.000.0048.01.0015.61.000.001
        Polynesian15635.91.06 (0.72–1.57)12.22.59 (1.3–5.03)9.01.26 (0.64–2.46)23.11.67 (1.04–2.68)
        Asian/other20424.50.61 (0.42–0.90)3.90.76 (0.3–1.77)16.72.20 (1.29–3.73)11.30.77 (0.46–1.30)
    BMI range
        <25 kg/m213124.41.000.083.81.000.3913.01.0011.51.000.07
        25–29 kg/m218331.21.40 (0.84–2.32)7.72.09 (0.7–5.95)10.90.82 (0.41–1.65)11.50.98 (0.48–1.99)
        ≥30 kg/m241934.81.65 (1.06–2.59)6.41.74 (0.6–4.60)9.80.80 (0.44–1.48)19.31.80 (0.99–3.27)
    Adjusted BMI category*
        Normal10023.01.000.111.01.000.0614.01.0011.01.000.26
        Overweight21032.91.64 (0.95–2.83)9.19.85 (1.3–74.65)11.40.82 (0.40–1.67)13.81.26 (0.60–2.66)
        Obese42333.81.71 (1.03–2.84)6.26.48 (0.87–48.36)9.50.70 (0.36–1.35)18.21.72 (0.87–3.39)
    Chronic hypertension
        No67531.31.000.125.51.000.00410.2116.410.28
        Yes5841.41.55 (0.90–2.68)15.53.17 (1.45–6.94)15.51.5 (0.70–3.22)10.30.62 (0.26–1.50)
    Nulliparity
        No50029.61.000.045.41.000.169.81.0018.41.000.03
        Yes23337.31.42 (1.02–1.97)8.21.56 (0.85–2.86)12.51.19 (0.73–1.94)10.70.55 (0.34–0.88)
    Weight change (kg) from early pregnancy to recruitment7331.01 (0.98–1.04)0.6121.05 (1.01–1.10)0.0310.95 (0.90–0.99)1.06 (1.02–1.09)<0.001
    Past obstetric history
        Preeclampsia
            No44528.51.000.044.31.000.0079.9118.010.10
            Yes5538.21.55 (0.87–2.77)14.63.82 (1.58–9.19)9.10.96 (0.36–2.57)21.81.27 (0.63–2.54)
            Nulliparity23337.31.49 (1.07–2.09)8.21.99 (1.03–3.84)12.31.18 (0.72–1.96)10.70.56 (0.35–0.91)
        Gestational hypertension
            No44028.91.000.073.91.00<0.00110.2117.710.06
            Yes6035.01.33 (0.75–2.35)16.74.98 (2.16–11.46)6.70.67 (0.23–1.96)23.31.36 (0.71–2.60)
            Nulliparity23337.31.47 (1.05–2.06)8.22.21 (1.13–4.34)12.51.14 (0.69–1.88)10.70.57 (0.35–0.92)
        Previous baby >4,000 g
            No33832.31.000.024.41.000.1711.81.0012.11.00<0.001
            Yes16224.10.67 (0.44–1.02)7.41.72 (0.79–3.77)5.60.57 (0.27–1.21)31.53.13 (1.96–5.02)
            Nulliparity23337.31.25 (0.88–1.78)8.21.91 (0.95–3.85)12.51.04 (0.62–1.74)10.70.88 (0.51–1.49)
    Maternal first-degree family history
        Diabetes
            No39032.310.886.410.877.71.0017.21.000.02
            Yes34331.80.98 (0.72–1.33)6.10.95 (0.52–1.73)14.01.91 (1.18–3.11)14.60.89 (0.60–1.34)
        Hypertension
            No44730.910.396.010.7410.11.0018.31.000.09
            Yes28633.91.15 (0.84–1.58)6.61.11 (0.60–2.03)11.51.08 (0.67–1.74)12.20.63 (0.41–0.97)
Glycemia measures
    At baseline (venous plasma)
        75-g OGTT result at diagnosis
            Fasting tertile 120829.81.000.393.41.000.0612.51.009.61.00<0.001
            Fasting tertile 221832.61.14 (0.75–1.72)6.41.97 (0.78–4.98)11.50.94 (0.52–1.69)12.41.32 (0.71–2.44)
            Fasting tertile 322836.01.32 (0.89–1.98)9.22.91 (1.21–7.00)9.70.91 (0.49–1.67)24.12.95 (1.69–5.15)
            2-h tertile 120630.11.000.094.41.000.197.31.0015.51.000.10
            2-h tertile 221328.60.93 (0.61–1.42)5.61.31 (0.54–3.17)12.71.81 (0.93–3.53)13.20.88 (0.51–1.53)
            2-h tertile 222237.81.41 (0.95–2.12)8.62.05 (0.91–4.64)13.52.12 (1.10–4.10)18.91.39 (0.83–2.32)
        Recruitment A1C
            Tertile 122331.81.000.734.51.000.049.91.008.11.000.004
            Tertile 222728.60.86 (0.57–1.29)4.00.88 (0.35–2.21)11.51.32 (0.72–2.42)16.32.29 (1.26–4.19)
            Tertile 321431.30.98 (0.65–1.46)9.42.20 (1.00–4.81)9.81.19 (0.63–2.25)21.53.18 (1.77–5.72)
    During treatment (capillary glucose)
        Fasting means
            Tertile 124022.91.000.0014.21.000.0313.81.0012.11.00<0.001
            Tertile 224632.51.62 (1.08–2.42)4.91.18 (0.50–2.78)11.40.80 (0.46–1.37)11.40.91 (0.52–1.58)
            Tertile 324039.62.20 (1.48–3.28)9.62.44 (1.13–5.24)6.70.52 (0.28–0.99)24.62.20 (1.34–3.59)
        Postprandial mean glucose
            Tertile 123825.61.000.0023.41.000.00211.81.0010.11.00<0.001
            Tertile 224829.41.21 (0.81–1.80)4.41.33 (0.53–3.38)10.50.91 (0.51–1.61)12.91.31 (0.74–2.30)
            Tertile 323840.31.96 (1.33–2.90)10.93.53 (1.56–7.96)9.70.98 (0.54–1.77)24.82.93 (1.74–4.93)
        Overall mean glucose (fasting + postprandial)/2
            Tertile 123923.01.00<0.0013.41.000.0113.81.0010.51.00<0.001
            Tertile 224831.11.51 (1.01–2.26)5.21.60 (0.65–3.93)9.70.69 (0.39–1.21)13.31.25 (0.72–2.19)
            Tertile 323741.42.36 (1.59–3.51)10.13.25 (1.43–7.40)8.40.69 (0.38–1.24)24.12.60 (1.54–4.32)
  • Data are % or ORs (95% CI).

  • *BMI adjusted for ethnicity. Normal: Polynesian 20–25 kg/m2, European 20–24 kg/m2, Indo-Asian/other 18–23 kg/m2; overweight: Polynesian ≥26–32 kg/m2, European ≥25–30 kg/m2, Indo-Asian/other >23–27.5 kg/m2; obese: Polynesian >32 kg/m2, European >30 kg/m2, Indo-Asian/other >27.5 kg/m2.