Table 1

Baseline characteristics and changes of clinical parameters in type 2 diabetic patients after receiving a 12-month intervention or usual care (control)

BaselineChanges from baseline to 12 months
InterventionControlP valueInterventionControlP value
n75797579
Baseline characteristics
    Age (years)56.6 ± 8.056.9 ± 7.50.802
    Diabetes duration (years)4.8 ± 4.44.8 ± 4.50.996
    Male sex (%)29 (38.7)38 (48.1)0.238
Education
    <6 years primary school45 (60.0)59 (74.7)0.052
    >6 years primary school30 (40.0)20 (25.3)
Clinical measurements
    Height (cm)159.1 ± 8.3161.1 ± 8.20.141−0.1 ± 1.2−0.1 ± 1.00.872
    BMI (kg/m2)25.7 ± 3.227.0 ± 4.70.0440.1 ± 1.20.2 ± 1.50.733
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)131.8 ± 19.8134.9 ± 17.40.304−0.7 ± 15.86.0 ± 18.90.019
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)79.7 ± 10.584.2 ± 10.30.0080.0 ± 11.00.6 ± 10.90.736
    Glucose (mg/dl)147.4 ± 49.6159.7 ± 53.40.141−6.8 ± 50.112.7 ± 56.90.026
    A1C (%)8.0 ± 1.58.4 ± 1.80.212−0.5 ± 1.1−0.1 ± 1.50.101
    Triglyceride (mg/dl)145.4 ± 90.2164.6 ± 122.90.272−3.8 ± 69.2−0.3 ± 110.80.818
    Total cholesterol (mg/dl)183.0 ± 37.9187.3 ± 38.40.488−5.1 ± 39.30.3 ± 43.70.424
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)50.1 ± 12.248.7 ± 11.10.471−0.1 ± 11.2−0.6 ± 8.70.743
    LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)117.8 ± 33.4118.5 ± 32.50.898−6.0 ± 35.90.1 ± 36.30.297
    GPT (units/l)35.3 ± 26.540.1 ± 35.90.3502.9 ± 44.6−0.3 ± 25.00.582
    Creatinine (mg/dl)0.8 ± 0.30.8 ± 0.20.6310.0 ± 0.40.0 ± 0.20.765
    Uric acid (mg/dl)5.5 ± 1.65.6 ± 1.90.6700.5 ± 1.30.2 ± 1.70.235
    hs-CRP (mg/dl)0.4 ± 1.30.3 ± 0.30.693−0.1 ± 1.5−0.1 ± 0.40.790
  • Data are means + SD or n (%). A t test or χ2 test was used to test differences between the intervention and control subjects at baseline. A t test was also used to determine the changes in clinical parameters between the two groups after a 1-year intervention. P < 0.05 is considered significantly different. GPT, glutamic pyruvic transanimase; hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.