Table 3

HbA1c according to demographic and clinical characteristics

2–5 years old6–12 years old13–17 years old18–25 years old26–49 years old≥50 years old
nMean ± SD (mmol/mol)nMean ± SD (mmol/mol)nMean ± SD (mmol/mol)nMean ± SD (mmol/mol)nMean ± SD (mmol/mol)nMean ± SD (mmol/mol)
Overall2368.2 ± 1.0 (66 ± 10.9)3,3138.4 ± 1.3 (68 ± 14.2)4,9149.0 ± 1.8 (75 ± 19.7)2,8678.7 ± 1.9 (72 ± 20.8)2,6067.7 ± 1.3 (61 ± 14.2)2,1257.6 ± 1.1 (60 ± 12.0)
Race/ethnicity
 White non-Hispanic1798.2 ± 0.9 (66 ± 9.8)2,6108.3 ± 1.2 (67 ± 13.1)3,8238.8 ± 1.6 (73 ± 17.5)2,3578.6 ± 1.8 (71 ± 19.7)2,3277.7 ± 1.3 (61 ± 14.2)2,0147.5 ± 1.1 (58 ± 12.0)
 Black non-Hispanic161649.6 ± 1.7 (81 ± 18.6)29210.2 ± 2.1 (88 ± 23.0)12410.2 ± 2.4 (88 ± 26.2)898.5 ± 1.5 (69 ± 16.4)8.4 ± 1.3 (68 ± 14.2)
 Hispanic or Latino258.3 ± 0.9 (67 ± 9.8)3368.6 ± 1.3 (71 ± 14.2)5409.2 ± 1.9 (77 ± 20.8)2639.1 ± 2.0 (76 ± 21.9)1067.9 ± 1.3 (63 ± 14.2)247.6 ± 1.1 (60 ± 12.0)
 Other161948.7 ± 1.6 (72 ± 17.5)2559.3 ± 2.0 (78 ± 21.9)1219.3 ± 2.0 (78 ± 21.9)817.6 ± 1.7 (60 ± 18.6)327.8 ± 1.7 (62 ± 18.6)
Annual household income*
 <$50,000768.4 ± 1.1 (68 ± 12.0)8238.9 ± 1.5 (74 ± 16.4)1,0459.5 ± 2.0 (80 ± 21.9)5149.1 ± 2.0 (76 ± 21.9)6528.0 ± 1.5 (64 ± 16.4)4307.7 ± 1.2 (61 ± 13.1)
 $50,000 to <$100,000778.0 ± 0.8 (64 ± 8.7)9348.3 ± 1.1 (67 ± 12.0)1,2469.0 ± 1.7 (75 ± 18.6)6398.7 ± 1.9 (72 ± 20.8)8147.7 ± 1.2 (61 ± 13.1)5897.6 ± 1.1 (60 ± 12.0)
 ≥$100,000458.0 ± 1.0 (64 ± 10.9)8458.0 ± 1.1 (64 ± 12.0)1,3248.5 ± 1.4 (69 ± 15.3)6538.2 ± 1.6 (66 ± 17.5)6937.3 ± 1.0 (56 ± 10.9)5567.4 ± 1.0 (57 ± 10.9)
Insulin delivery method
 Pump1468.0 ± 0.9 (64 ± 9.8)2,1318.2 ± 1.2 (66 ± 13.1)2,8108.7 ± 1.5 (72 ± 16.4)1,5558.4 ± 1.6 (68 ± 17.5)1,6257.6 ± 1.2 (60 ± 13.1)1,2637.5 ± 1.0 (58 ± 10.9)
 Injections878.5 ± 1.1 (69 ± 12.0)1,1368.8 ± 1.4 (73 ± 15.3)2,0089.4 ± 2.0 (79 ± 21.9)1,2779.1 ± 2.1 (76 ± 23.0)9407.8 ± 1.5 (62 ± 16.4)8337.7 ± 1.2 (61 ± 13.1)
CGM
 Yes207.4 ± 0.6 (57 ± 6.6)1647.9 ± 0.9 (63 ± 9.8)1538.2 ± 1.4 (66 ± 15.3)1308.1 ± 1.3 (65 ± 14.2)3997.3 ± 1.1 (56 ± 12.0)2387.4 ± 1.0 (57 ± 10.9)
 No2168.3 ± 1.0 (67 ± 10.9)3,1498.4 ± 1.3 (68 ± 14.2)4,7619.0 ± 1.8 (75 ± 19.7)2,7378.7 ± 1.9 (72 ± 20.8)2,2077.8 ± 1.4 (62 ± 15.3)1,8877.6 ± 1.1 (60 ± 12.0)
SMBG#
 0–3 times per day32539.5 ± 1.9 (80 ± 20.8)1,3169.7 ± 1.9 (83 ± 20.8)9949.2 ± 1.9 (77 ± 20.8)6898.0 ± 1.3 (64 ± 14.2)3757.9 ± 1.2 (63 ± 13.1)
 4–6 times per day638.4 ± 1.0 (68 ± 10.9)1,1748.5 ± 1.2 (69 ± 13.1)1,5758.6 ± 1.4 (71 ± 15.3)6258.0 ± 1.3 (64 ± 14.2)7127.4 ± 1.0 (57 ± 10.9)6327.5 ± 1.0 (58 ± 10.9)
 6–9 times per day758.1 ± 0.9 (65 ± 9.8)6278.1 ± 1.0 (65 ± 10.9)3608.0 ± 1.1 (64 ± 12.0)1247.5 ± 1.0 (58 ± 10.9)1937.1 ± 0.9 (54 ± 9.8)1877.1 ± 0.8 (54 ± 8.7)
 ≥10 times per day287.5 ± 0.7 (58 ± 7.7)2867.7 ± 0.9 (61 ± 9.8)877.9 ± 1.1 (63 ± 12.0)487.2 ± 1.1 (55 ± 12.0)737.0 ± 1.1 (53 ± 12.0)567.0 ± 0.8 (53 ± 8.7)
  • Dash (—) indicates n < 20.

  • *Income is from participant report at enrollment.

  • #SMBG from meter download was available for 10,555 participants.