Table 1

Prevention trials in type 1 diabetes

Study nameIntervention1°OutcomeEnd point achievedReference or ClinicalTrials.gov identifier
Primary prevention studies
 NIPDietary docosahexaenoic acidPilot study**60
 Finnish TRIGR pilotHydrolyzed casein formulaAutoantibodiesYes61
 BABYDIETDelayed dietary gluten exposureAutoantibodiesNo62
 TRIGRHydrolyzed casein formulaAutoantibodiesNo63
 FINDIAWhey-based, insulin-free bovine milk formulaAutoantibodiesYes64
Secondary prevention studies
 DENISNicotinamideDiagnosis of type 1 diabetesNo65
 DPT-1 Parenteral InsulinParenteral insulinDiagnosis of type 1 diabetesNo66
 INIT IIntranasal insulinSafetyYes#67
 ENDITNicotinamideDiagnosis of type 1 diabetesNo68
 DPT-1 Oral InsulinOral insulinDiagnosis of type 1 diabetesNo69
 DIPP sibling cohortIntranasal insulinDiagnosis of type 1 diabetesNo70
 DIPP birth cohortIntranasal insulinDiagnosis of type 1 diabetesNo70
 Belgian Parenteral InsulinParenteral insulinDiagnosis of type 1 diabetesNo71
 TrialNet Oral InsulinOral insulinDiagnosis of type 1 diabetes*NCT00419562
 INIT IIIntranasal insulinDiagnosis of type 1 diabetes*NCT00336674
 DIAPREV-ITGAD-alum (Diamyd)Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes*NCT01122446
 TrialNet TeplizumabTeplizumabDiagnosis of type 1 diabetes*NCT01030861
 TrialNet AbataceptCTLA4Ig (abatacept)Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes*NCT01773707
  • Adapted with permission from Skyler (9). DENIS, Deutsche Nicotinamide Intervention Study; DIAPREV-IT, Diabetes Prevention–Immune Tolerance; DIPP, Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Project; DPT-1, Diabetes Prevention Trial–Type 1; ENDIT, European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial; FINDIA, Finnish Dietary Intervention Trial for the Prevention of Type 1 Diabetes; INIT, Intranasal Insulin Trial; NIP, Nutritional Intervention to Prevent Diabetes; TRIGR, Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk.

  • *Data not yet available.

  • **Pilot study.

  • #No adverse events.