Table 1

Characteristics of the study population at baseline and of the study sites at which they were enrolled, with univariate HRs for all-cause mortality

Baseline characteristicValueHR (95% CI)P valueOverall P value
Age (years)62.2 ± 6.81.08 (1.06−1.09)<0.0001
Female3,952 (38.6)0.64 (0.52−0.78)<0.0001
Race/ethnicity0.001
    African-American1,952 (19)0.81 (0.63−1.03)0.0821
    Hispanic738 (7.2)0.71 (0.47−1.06)0.09
    Other1,117 (10.9)0.51 (0.35−0.74)0.0004
    Non-Hispanic white6,444 (62.9)1
Diabetes duration0.002
    6–10 years2,931 (29.3)0.88 (0.68−1.14)0.3,422
    11–15 years1,958 (19.6)0.86 (0.64−1.15)0.3,041
    ≥16+ years2,341 (23.4)1.33 (1.05−1.7)0.0203
    ≤5 years2,776 (27.7)1
History of cardiovascular disease3,608 (35.2)2.07 (1.72−2.48)<0.0001
Prior myocardial infarction475 (4.6)1.44 (0.99−2.09)0.0592
Heart failure/congestive heart failure494 (4.9)3.18 (2.42−4.17)<0.0001
Retinal surgery879 (8.6)1.67 (1.28−2.17)0.0001
Amputation185 (1.8)2.64 (1.71−4.09)<0.0001
Education0.0028
    Less than high school1,521 (14.8)1.64 (1.23−2.19)0.0007
    High school graduate2,704 (26.4)1.42 (1.1−1.85)0.0079
    Some college3,357 (32.8)1.18 (0.91−1.53)0.218
    College graduate or more2,662 (26)1
Smoking<0.0001
    Former4,527 (44.2)1.78 (1.44−2.21)<0.0001
    Current1,429 (14)2.13 (1.62−2.8)<0.0001
    Never4,282 (41.8)1
Alcohol use0.0589
    1–6 drinks/week1,975 (19.3)0.75 (0.59−0.97)0.0282
    7+ drinks/week470 (4.6)1.15 (0.76−1.72)0.5,065
    No drinks/week7,801 (76.1)1
Insulin use3,579 (34.9)1.4 (1.17−1.69)0.0003
ACE inhibitor5,433 (53)1.27 (1.05−1.52)0.0131
Angiotensin receptor blockers1,639 (16)0.79 (0.59−1.04)0.0928
Statins6,363 (62.1)0.92 (0.76−1.1)0.3534
Metformin6,135 (59.8)0.84 (0.7−1.01)0.0665
Secretagogues5,273 (51.4)0.79 (0.66−0.95)0.0105
Thiazolidinediones1,982 (19.3)0.85 (0.67−1.09)0.204
BMI (kg/m2)32.2 ± 5.51 (0.984−1.017)0.9773
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)136.4 ± 17.11.003 (0.997−1.008)0.3316
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)74.9 ± 10.70.975 (0.966−0.984)<0.0001
Visual acuity<0.0001
    <20/402,337 (23.9)3.36 (2.26−5)<0.0001
    20/20–20/405,948 (60.7)2.16 (1.47−3.18)<0.0001
    ≥20/201,510 (15.4)1
Peripheral neuropathy4,356 (42.6)1.83 (1.52−2.2)<0.0001
Heart rate72.7 ± 11.81 (0.992−1.008)0.9311
Q-T index101.8 ± 5.21.05 (1.03−1.06)<0.0001
A1C (%)8.3 ± 1.11.04 (0.96−1.14)0.3252
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)175.3 ± 56.21 (0.998−1.001)0.6445
LDL (mg/dl)104.9 ± 33.90.998 (0.995−1.001)0.119
HDL (mg/dl)41.9 ± 11.60.988 (0.98−0.996)0.0054
Triglycerides (mg/dl)190.1 ± 148.41 (0.999−1.001)0.9412
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)0.91 ± 0.232.44 (1.72−3.46)<0.0001
Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/mg)<0.0001
    30–≤3002,501 (24.6)1.7 (1.39−2.09)<0.0001
    >300673 (6.6)2.9 (2.2−3.81)<0.0001
    <306,998 (68.8)1
Integrated health plan4,078 (39.8)1.39 (1.16−1.68)0.0004
Endocrinologist or diabetologist5,706 (55.7)0.84 (0.7−1)0.0556
Certified diabetes educator on staff at rand3,960 (38.6)0.94 (0.78−1.14)0.5429
Site size0.894
    <1001,583 (15.4)0.94 (0.72−1.24)0.6837
    100–1503,049 (29.7)0.97 (0.78−1.19)0.7385
    >1505,619 (54.8)1
  • Values are means ± SD, n (%), or HR (95% CI).