Table 2

HRs (95% CI) from Cox proportional hazard models

Model includesAssociation of measures of A1C with all-cause mortality
UnadjustedModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 3, intensiveModel 3 standardInteraction P value*
Average A1C1.20 (1.09–1.32)1.20 (1.08–1.33)1.22 (1.10–1.36)1.45 (1.3–1.63)1.66 (1.46–1.89)1.14 (0.95–1.38)
P value0.00020.00080.0001P < 0.0001P < 0.00010.170.0007
Last A1C1.06 (0.98–1.15)1.05 (0.96–1.14)1.07 (0.98–1.16)1.14 (1.05–1.25)1.27 (1.14–1.41)0.98 (0.86–1.13)
P value0.150.280.120.0026P < 0.00010.810.0030
1-year decrease of A1C1.02 (0.94–1.10)0.98 (0.87–1.10)0.96 (0.86–1.07)0.85 (0.75–0.97)0.86 (0.74–1.01)0.83 (0.71–0.97)
P value0.690.710.460.01270.060.02270.66
4-month decrease of A1C1.00 (0.92–1.09)0.98 (0.88–1.09)0.97 (0.87–1.08)0.90 (0.79–1.01)0.92 (0.79–1.07)0.88 (0.76–1.02)
P value0.980.740.560.070.250.070.61
  • Model 1 contains these baseline characteristics: age, sex, congestive heart failure, amputation, smoking, alcohol use, use of secretagogues, visual acuity, peripheral nerve function, Q-T interval, A1C, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and site in integrated health system. Model 2 adds assignment to blood pressure or lipid trial and treatment assignment within these, severe hypoglycemia, and weight change. Model 3 adds glycemic treatment strategy assignment.

  • *P value for interaction of treatment assignment with the A1C relationships in model 3 is shown in the column at the right.