Table 1

Baseline clinical and laboratory characteristics of 891 type 1 diabetic patients followed for 8.1 (0.0–12.9) years according to nephropathy status

CharacteristicNephropathyNormoalbuminuriaP
n451440
Sex (men/women)274/177232/2080.018
Age (years)42.1 ± 10.545.4 ± 11.5<0.001
Duration of diabetes (years)28.3 ± 8.927.7 ± 10.10.37
BMI (kg/m2)24.3 ± 3.324.2 ± 3.10.77
A1C (%)9.4 ± 1.58.4 ± 1.1<0.001
Antihypertensive treatment (%)*77.016.6<0.001
Systolic BP (mmHg)144 ± 22134 ± 19<0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg)82 ± 1276 ± 10<0.001
Urinary albumin excretion rate (mg/24 h)593 (3–14,545)9 (1–30)
Serum creatinine (μmol/l)102 (52–706)80 (53–134)<0.001
GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)76 ± 33
Serum cholesterol (mmol/l)5.6 ± 1.24.8 ± 1.0<0.001
Smoking (%)46.339.80.05
Retinopathy (0/SR/PR)6/139/306159/162/119<0.001
History of MI (%)4.22.10.05
History of stroke (%)6.91.6<0.001
NT-proBNP (ng/l)89.1 (5–19,394)42.8 (5–1,552)<0.001
GDF-15 (ng/l)1,322 (443–17,735)749 (158–13,933)<0.001
  • Data are n, means ± SD, or median (range).

  • *In 2002, the recommendations at the Steno Diabetes Center were extended to include statins and low-dose aspirin for all patients with diabetic nephropathy.

  • †Some patients with previously persistent macroalbuminuria receiving antihypertensive treatment had values <300 mg/24 h at the time of investigation.

  • ‡Presence of previous CVD is defined as either MI or stroke. SR, simplex retinopathy; PR, proliferative retinopathy.