Table 1

Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics of the study population

Usual care*Intervention*P
n2324
Age (years)62 ± 7.257 ± 100.081
Male/female15/814/10
Duration of diabetes (years)18.8 ± 6.418.8 ± 9.20.983
BMI (kg/m2)33.1 ± 6.033.7 ± 6.40.732
A1C (%)8.5 ± 1.28.8 ± 1.30.425
Blood pressure (mmHg)132.6 ± 14.4/71.3 ± 9.2129.5 ± 20.1/74.2 ± 15.50.545/0.439
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.3 ± 1.34.2 ± 1.00.789
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.0 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.40.171
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)2.2 ± 1.02.2 ± 0.80.947
Triglyceride (mmol/l)2.2 ± 0.91.7 ± 0.70.058
Total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio4.4 ± 1.33.7 ± 1.00.065
Creatinine (μmol/l)98.2 ± 30.185.4 ± 39.00.225
Daily insulin dosage (IU)57.9 ± 45.060.4 ± 36.00.829
  • Data are means ± SD.

  • *Two patients in the usual-care group and one patient in the intervention group did not follow protocol and were excluded.