Table 1

Baseline characteristics, A1C, psychosocial measures, and MITI 3.0

MI groupSDE group
n2123
Mean age in years (SD)15.3 (1.4)15.6 (1.7)
Mean years of diabetes (SD)6.7 (3.4)7.6 (4.7)
Sex
    Male (%)9 (43)13 (56)
    Female (%)12 (57)10 (44)
Race
    Caucasian (%)13 (62)17 (74)
    Other8 (38)6 (26)
Insurance
    Private (%)17 (81)13 (57)
    CHIP/CHSCN* (%)2 (9.5)4 (17)
    Medicaid (%)2 (9.5)6 (26)
A1C (%)LS mean (SEM)LS mean (SEM)F (P)
    T0 unadjusted10.9 (0.4)11.1 (0.3)
    T1 adjusted11.3 (0.3)10.4 (0.3)
    T2 adjusted11.1 (0.4)10.2 (0.4)
    T3 adjusted11.7 (0.6)10.3 (0.5)
    Omnibus effect over study11.4 (0.3)10.3 (0.3)4.84 (0.03)
MeasureLS mean (SEM)LS mean (SEM)F (P)
    EDIC-QOL
        Part A (Satisfaction)2.22 (0.07)2.27 (0.06)0.23 (0.63)
        Part B (Lifestyle)2.03 (0.06)2.04 (0.05)0.02 (0.88)
        Part C (Worry)1.69 (0.12)1.56 (0.11)0.64 (0.43)
    CES-D§1.72 (0.06)1.65 (0.06)0.75 (0.39)
    Self-care4.49 (0.16)4.57 (0.15)0.17 (0.68)
    MITI 3.0Mean (SD)Mean (SD)P
        Spirit4 (0.4)2.6 (0.5)<0.001
        Given information#2.3 (1.8)6.7 (2.8)<0.001
        MI adherence**6.8 (3.3)2.1 (1.4)<0.001
        Non-MI adherence††2.9 (1.4)5.8 (2.6)<0.001
        Total reflections‡‡9.5 (3.7)1.1 (1.1)<0.001
  • Least squares (LS) means are adjusted for each respective baseline measure. F statistic was used to test for omnibus mean difference on each measure between the two treatment groups over 6 months of follow-up.

  • *Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP)/Children with Special Health Care Needs (CHSCN).

  • †Primary outcome variable, least squares means for A1C, adjusted for baseline over 6 months of follow-up.

  • ‡Lower number indicates higher quality of life.

  • §Lower number indicates less depressive symptoms.

  • ‖Mean days out of 7 of adherence to self-care.

  • ¶Overall competence of the clinician in using MI based on a global rating scale of 1–5, where 1 is low spirit and 5 is high spirit. Fidelity to MI would correspond to higher scores on this variable. The score for beginning proficiency and competency are 3.5 and 4, respectively.

  • #Giving information, education, providing opinion without advising. Number is based on frequency of occurrences. Fidelity to MI would correspond to lower scores on this variable.

  • **Asking permission before giving advice, affirming, emphasizing control, and supporting the participant. Number is based on frequency of occurrences. Fidelity to MI would correspond to higher scores on this variable.

  • ††Advising without permission, confronting, and directing the participant. Number is based on frequency of occurrences. Fidelity to MI would correspond to lower scores on this variable.

  • ‡‡Reflections made by the clinician to comments made by the participant. Number is based on frequency of occurrences. Fidelity to MI would correspond to higher scores on this variable.