Table 3

Absolute and relative incretin effects

CRCREXEXAmong-group P
Incretin effect on ISR total AUC, %
 Baseline53.2 ± 3.056.6 ± 4.143.2 ± 8.2
 Final53.2 ± 4.259.5 ± 2.941.4 ± 7.50.27
 Adjusted change0.5 ± 3.65.6 ± 3.52.7 ± 3.6
 Within-group P0.890.120.470.60
Incretin effect on ISR AUC, ×103 pmol
 Baseline16.2 ± 1.614.1 ± 1.512.2 ± 1.30.19
 Final14.0 ± 1.412.9 ± 1.412.1 ± 1.4
 Adjusted change−1.0 ± 1.3−1.2 ± 1.2−1.1 ± 1.31.00
 Within-group P0.440.340.39
Incretin effect on insulin AUC, %
 Baseline63.2 ± 3.668.2 ± 3.055.1 ± 5.50.09
 Final63.9 ± 4.469.1 ± 3.563.6 ± 4.5
 Adjusted change1.4 ± 4.15.4 ± 4.13.0 ± 4.20.79
 Within-group P0.730.190.48
Incretin effect on insulin AUC, ×103 pmol/L·min
 Baseline38.4 ± 5.736.8 ± 7.525.5 ± 4.20.27
 Final28.4 ± 2.930.3 ± 7.322.3 ± 2.8
 Adjusted change−8.1 ± 3.5−5.2 ± 3.4−6.5 ± 3.50.84
 Within-group P0.030.130.07
Incretin effect on C-peptide AUC, %
 Baseline82.7 ± 1.084.0 ± 1.380.4 ± 1.50.14
 Final82.7 ± 1.284.5 ± 0.983.2 ± 1.4
 Adjusted change0.2 ± 1.11.6 ± 1.11.4 ± 1.10.64
 Within-group P0.860.160.22
Incretin effect on C-peptide total AUC, nmol/L·min
 Baseline1,001 ± 65912 ± 84847 ± 650.33
 Final882 ± 55790 ± 95795 ± 65
 Adjusted change−100 ± 52−124 ± 50−69 ± 520.75
 Within-group P0.060.020.19
Incretin effect on insulin clearance, %
 Baseline−36 ± 7−40 ± 6−26 ± 70.32
 Final−36 ± 6−38 ± 7−38 ± 7
 Adjusted change−2 ± 7−4 ± 7−5 ± 70.96
 Within-group P0.770.590.49
Incretin effect on insulin clearance, ISR:insulin AUC ratio
 Baseline−0.19 ± 0.04−0.21 ± 0.03−0.15 ± 0.040.45
 Final−0.22 ± 0.04−0.24 ± 0.05−0.26 ± 0.06
 Adjusted change−0.04 ± 0.05−0.05 ± 0.05−0.08 ± 0.050.80
 Within-group P0.470.320.11
  • Values are reported as the arithmetic mean ± SE, except for adjusted change values, which are reported as the least squares mean ± SE that have been adjusted for differences in baseline values among groups. Among-group P, significance of the among-group differences in change values after adjustment for baseline values using ANCOVA. Incretin effect data are missing for one subject in the CR group and two subjects in the CREX group because of missing matched glucose infusion data (refused test n = 2, technical problems during test n = 1).