Table 1

Characteristics of the study population at baseline

MedDiet with VOO groupMedDiet with nuts groupControl diet group
n139145134
Age (years)67.4 ± 6.166.6 ± 5.867.8 ± 6.1
Male sex (%)404738
Current smoker (%)111515
Weight (kg)75.3 ± 10.376.1 ± 10.576.2 ± 11.3
BMI (kg/m2)29.7 ± 3.329.6 ± 3.130.0 ± 3.3
Waist circumference(cm)101.1 ± 8.6100.3 ± 8.5102.2 ± 9.4
Leisure-time physical activity (kcal/day)372 ± 280389 ± 267338 ± 209
Plasma biomarkers
    LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.7 ± 0.93.5 ± 0.83.7 ± 0.9
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.5 ± 0.31.5 ± 0.41.5 ± 0.4
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.5 ± 0.61.6 ± 0.81.6 ± 0.8
    Non–HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)4.3 ± 0.94.2 ± 0.94.4 ± 1.0
    Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.5 ± 0.85.5 ± 0.95.5 ± 0.9
    2-h postload glucose (mmol/l)*7.1 ± 2.66.9 ± 2.47.4 ± 2.9
    Fasting insulin (μU/ml)5.8 ± 3.65.4 ± 3.26.2 ± 4.4
    HOMA-IR1.41 ± 0.871.34 ± 0.871.60 ± 1.17
Medication use (%)
    Lipid-lowering drugs46.847.640.3
    Antihypertensive medication82.082.178.4
    Estrogen replacement therapy2.40.02.4
Energy, food, and nutrient intake
    Total energy (kcal/day)2,320 ± 5792,365 ± 5702,314 ± 580
    Carbohydrate (% energy)41 ± 640 ± 641 ± 7
    Protein (% energy)16 ± 316 ± 216 ± 2
    Fat (% energy)41 ± 641 ± 640 ± 7
    MUFA-to-SFA ratio1.9 ± 0.42.0 ± 0.41.9 ± 0.5
    Total fiber (g/day)23.7 ± 7.623.6 ± 8.023.0 ± 7.7
    Olive oil (g/day)41.2 ± 17.742.0 ± 16.540.1 ± 20.4
    Nuts (g/day)13.1 ± 15.014.4 ± 15.49.3 ± 12.1
    Vegetables (g/day)309 ± 129310 ± 141286 ± 117
    Fruits (g/day)298 ± 185315 ± 164286 ± 168
    Legumes (g/day)18 ± 7.919 ± 9.018 ± 8.4
    Cereals (g/day)248 ± 98245 ± 99251 ± 105
    Red meat and meat products (g/day)80 ± 4486 ± 4684 ± 47
    Milk and dairy products (g/day)355 ± 201348 ± 183346 ± 207
    Seafood (g/day)107 ± 42104 ± 4399 ± 41
    Alcohol (g/day)8 ± 1111 ± 149 ± 12
    Red wine (ml/day)57 ± 9575 ± 10164 ± 89
Score of adherence to the MedDiet8.4 ± 1.98.4 ± 1.97.9 ± 1.9
  • Data are means ± SD or %. VOO, virgin olive oil.

  • *Data were available for 263 participants.

  • †Data were available for 307 participants.