Table 2

Hazard ratios (95% CI) of diabetes by intervention group

MedDiet with VOO vs. control dietMedDiet with nuts vs. control dietBoth MedDiets vs. control diet
Crude model0.53 (0.27–1.09)0.58 (0.31–1.10)0.55 (0.32–0.95)
Age- and sex-adjusted model0.52 (0.27–1.00)0.55 (0.29–1.00)0.53 (0.31–0.92)
Multivariate adjusted model*0.49 (0.25–0.97)0.48 (0.24–0.96)0.48 (0.27–0.86)
Sex
    Male0.48 (0.16–1.46)0.65 (0.21–2.00)0.55 (0.21–1.43)
    Female0.47 (0.19–1.17)0.32 (0.11–0.93)0.40 (0.18–0.90)
Age
    ≤67 years0.50 (0.18–1.39)0.65 (0.26–1.61)0.58 (0.26–1.31)
    >67 years0.26 (0.08–0.83)0.27 (0.07–0.98)0.26 (0.09–0.76)
BMI
    ≤30 kg/m20.56 (0.21–1.49)0.52 (0.19–1.41)0.54 (0.24–1.22)
    >30 kg/m20.50 (0.18–1.42)0.62 (0.22–1.76)0.56 (0.23–1.43)
Fasting glucose
    ≤6.1 mmol/l0.44 (0.16–1.25)0.60 (0.24–1.50)0.53 (0.23–1.20)
    >6.1 mmol/l0.29 (0.09–0.95)0.39 (0.11–1.37)0.32 (0.11–0.98)
  • Cox regression models to assess the relative risk of diabetes by allocation group, estimating the hazard ratios (95% CI), were performed. Pinteraction (MedDiet × sex) = 0.496; Pinteraction (MedDiet × age) = 0.195; Pinteraction (MedDiet × BMI) = 0.592; Pinteraction (MedDiet × fasting glucose) = 0.932. VOO, virgin olive oil.

  • *Adjusted for sex, age, baseline energy intake, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking status, fasting serum glucose, use of lipid-lowering drugs, Mediterranean diet score, and weight changes during the study.

  • †Adjusted for the same variables as in footnote *, except for the variable of interest.