Table 1

Clinical and biochemical characteristics of the study cohort stratified according to occurrence of cancer during follow-up period

Noncancer (n = 2,529)Cancer (n = 129)P
Baseline variables
 Age (years)55 (44–66)64 (55–72)<0.0001*
 Male sex1,236 (48.9)71 (55.0)0.1718
Employment status<0.0001
 Full-time926 (36.6)29 (22.5)
 Housewife699 (27.6)36 (27.9)
 Retired654 (25.9)58 (50.0)
 Other250 (9.9)6 (4.7)
Smoking status0.0046
 Ex-smoker365 (14.4)26 (20.2)
 Current smoker390 (15.4)30 (23.3)
Alcohol intake0.0030
 Ex-drinker298 (11.8)28 (21.7)
 Current drinker198 (7.8)7 (5.4)
BMI (kg/m2)24.3 (22.0–26.5)23.9 (22.2–26.4)0.6937*
Duration of diabetes (years)4 (1–9)5 (2–12)0.0180*
SBP (mmHg)132 (120–146)134 (125–148)0.0827*
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)75 (68–82)75 (67–82)0.9706*
A1C (%)6.9 (6.1–8.2)7.2 (6.1–8.6)0.2575*
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)3.20 (2.60–3.80)2.30 (2.90–3.74)0.0154*
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.26 (1.07–1.52)1.25 (0.99–1.53)0.3760*
 HDL cholesterol <1.0 mmol/L398 (15.7)35 (27.1)0.0006
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.26 (0.9–1.86)1.16 (0.84–1.66)0.0700*
ACR (mg/mmol)1.54 (0.67–8.54)3.07 (0.93–11.04)0.0063*
 Albuminuria968 (38.3)64 (49.6)0.0100
Estimate GFR (mL/min per 1.73 m2)105.5 (84.0–127.7)99.8 (81.6–118.8)0.1047*
Events and medications during follow-up§
Death (all-cause)188 (7.4)68 (52.4)<0.0001
ACE inhibitors or ARBs1,198 (47.4)55 (42.6)0.2933
Statins817 (32.3)17 (13.2)<0.0001
Fibrates206 (8.2)7 (5.4)0.2672
Other lipid-lowering drugs12 (0.5)0 (0.0)1.0
Acarbose143 (9.5)5 (2.5)0.3902
Glibenclamide537 (21.2)25 (19.4)0.6150
Gliclazide1,001 (39.6)41 (31.8)0.0768
Glimepiride15 (0.6)1 (0.8)0.5499
Glipizide217 (8.6)21 (16.3)0.0028
Metformin1,226 (48.5)40 (31.0)<0.0001
Duration of metformin use (years)ξ3.09 (1.21–5.65)1.21 (0.57–3.57)0.0008*
Mean daily metformin dosage (g)ξ1.01 (0.82–1.56)1.05 (0.64–1.42)0.1981*
Pioglitazone19 (0.8)0 (0)1.0
Rosiglitazone72 (2.8)1 (0.9)0.2618
Tolbutamide19 (0.8)0 (0)1.0
Follow-up time (years)5.70 (3.23–7.44)2.52 (1.09–4.51)<0.0001
  • Data are median (25th to 75th percentile) or n (%).

  • *Derived from Wilcoxon two-sample test.

  • †Derived from χ2 test.

  • ‡Derived from Fisher exact test.

  • §From enrollment to the earliest date of cancer, death, or censoring.

  • ξAmong metformin users only.