Table 1

Participant characteristics and risk-factor distribution by quintiles of CAL and periodontal pocket depth in U.S. adults, NHANES III, 1988–1994

Total (n = 12,254)CALPocket depth
Quintile 1Quintile 2Quintile 3Quintile 4Quintile 5Quintile 1Quintile 2Quintile 3Quintile 4Quintile 5
N2,4122,4932,4652,4312,4532,4512,4132,5122,4292,449
Age (%)
 20-44 years88.878.368.347.722.063.465.765.665.958.0
 45-64 years9.618.023.335.647.524.324.624.523.231.0
 ≥65 years1.63.78.416.730.512.39.89.910.911.0
Sex (%)
 Male45.247.247.853.959.936.748.055.056.162.1
 Female54.852.852.246.140.163.352.045.043.937.9
Race (%)
 Non-Hispanic white77.674.976.074.372.081.479.576.769.661.2
 Non-Hispanic black10.210.69.910.214.77.27.49.514.421.4
 Mexican American6.36.25.95.24.24.24.66.36.77.9
 Others6.08.38.210.49.17.38.67.59.39.5
Education level (%)
 ≤6 years2.33.63.85.39.83.22.74.35.89.3
 7-12 years43.543.748.152.860.144.842.747.253.363.7
 ≥13 years54.152.648.141.830.152.054.648.540.927.0
Income poverty ratio (%)*
 Lower (≤1.5)19.521.017.819.725.216.616.817.323.833.5
 Middle (≤3.0)29.731.332.131.534.926.830.132.834.537.7
 Higher (>3.0)50.847.750.148.839.956.653.149.841.828.7
Number of missing teeth (%)†
 073.063.452.942.932.959.959.057.051.338.3
 1-524.732.240.347.243.633.433.434.941.544.2
 6-102.13.85.98.517.66.15.26.45.713.2
 ≥110.20.71.01.55.90.70.81.71.44.3
Smoking (%)
 Never smoker59.953.850.138.327.252.854.048.741.930.6
 Ex-smoker16.020.924.531.232.525.823.025.423.223.9
 Current smoker24.125.325.430.540.321.323.025.934.945.5
Alcohol (%)
 Never10.211.512.613.612.113.112.311.410.711.8
 Former24.127.627.71.438.431.026.229.157.134.4
 Current65.760.959.754.949.555.961.559.562.353.8
Physical activity (%)‡
 Active61.656.156.554.349.455.756.058.656.152.8
 Moderate10.512.112.213.111.212.013.612.011.28.9
 Less active9.79.68.57.95.88.59.88.58.46.1
 Unknown18.222.122.824.733.623.820.620.924.332.1
BMI (%)
 <18.5 (kg/m2)3.51.62.11.62.12.82.12.31.81.7
 18.5-24.9 (kg/m2)52.744.841.738.134.049.846.739.341.431.8
 25-29.9 (kg/m2)26.433.235.234.737.029.332.836.032.635.7
 ≥30.0 (kg/m2)17.520.421.025.626.918.118.522.424.230.8
Central adiposity (%)§
 Absent76.970.265.758.951.571.369.765.960.754.8
 Present23.129.834.341.148.528.730.334.139.345.2
Regular dental checkup (%)||
 Yes56.157.256.453.843.464.061.054.847.930.4
 No43.942.843.646.256.636.039.045.252.169.6
Diabetic status (%)
 Normal (n = 7,262)81.776.669.859.646.171.772.568.567.556.2
 IFG (n = 3,681)15.819.425.030.537.923.120.825.325.632.6
 Diabetes (n = 1,311)2.54.05.29.816.05.26.76.26.911.2
Clinical attachment loss (mm)0.2 ± 0.00.6 ± 0.00.9 ± 0.01.4 ± 0.03.0 ± 0.00.7 ± 0.00.8 ± 0.01.0 ± 0.01.2 ± 0.12.2 ± 0.1
Pocket depth (mm)1.3 ± 0.01.3 ± 0.01.4 ± 0.01.6 ± 0.01.9 ± 0.01.0 ± 0.01.2 ± 0.01.5 ± 0.01.8 ± 0.02.4 ± 0.0
Plasma glucose level (mg/dL)91.2 ± 0.593. 9 ± 0.696.6 ± 0.8101.7 ± 1.1107.5 ± 1.195.0 ± 0.696.9 ± 1.096.9 ± 0.797.5 ± 0.8103.6 ± 0.9
  • Data are percentage or means ± SD.

  • *Income-to-poverty ratio: (midpoint family income)/(poverty threshold values based on calendar years and inflation). †Missing due to caries/periodontal disease. ‡The number of missing values was 4,097 categorized by unknown. §Central adiposity present if waist for male subjects ≥101.6 cm and for female subjects ≥88.9 cm. ||At least once a year visit to dental clinic.